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Title : A Huge mucinous ovarian cyst discovered in a 70-year-old patient
Authors : Imen Ben Salah,Mehdi El Hassani,Kouach Jawad,Driss Rahali Moussaoui

The most common ovarian tumors are stromal-epithelial tumors. Mucinous cyst is a benign tumor of the ovary containing a mucoid fluid They are often seen in women aged 20 to 50, with an average age of 42 years. We report the case of a 70-year-old patient with a huge mucinous cyst. Mucinous cysts sit in the ovary in about half of the cases, the volume of mucinous cysts is variable, . Of the mucinous tumors of the ovary: 85% are benign, 5% are borderline tumors of good prognosis, 10% are malignant tumors. The etiology of mucinous cysts is unknown, but it has occasionally been described that these cysts may be associated with other ovarian tumors. The management of benign mucinous cysts of the ovary is total cystectomy or oophorectomy (depending on the context) that are curative for mucinous cysts of the ovary. Most epithelial tumors of the cystic ovary have a benign and malignant side, but also a malignant or borderline border that is difficult to manage.

Keywords : Mucinous cyst ,ovary ,epithelial tumors
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Why reduce and fix an isolated and displaced acromial fracture? Report of a case
Authors : Bouchaib Chafry,Youssef Benyass,Salim Bouabid,Driss Benchebba,Mostapha Boussouga

The fracture of the acromion is rare, only 8% of all scapular fractures. The purpose of the clinical case is to highlight the rarity of this condition, and the indication of surgical treatment to prevent subsequent functional damages as well as chronic pain conditions. We report the case of a 54-year-old patient who suffered a fall from a high height on the right shoulder following which he presented pain and total functional impotence of the upper limb without neurovascular disorders. The diagnosis of the acromion fracture was suspected by physical examination and confirmed by imaging. The treatment consisted of an open reduction with racking fixation. Then, reeducation was started early. The evolution was marked by the disappearance of the pain and the resumption of a good mobility of the shoulder after a retreat of 6 months. The fracture of the acromion is a rare condition that occurs following direct violent trauma. The scanner plays an important role in the management. Surgical treatment is intended to avoid complications and to obtain a functional shoulder especially in displaced forms.

Keywords : shoulder pain , scapula , acromion , fracture , surgery
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Trends of temperature at high- and low-densely populated divisions in Bangladesh
Authors : Karno Kumar Mondal,Md. A. E. Akhter,Md. Nazrul Islam

Trend, Temperature, Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimate, Bangladesh:The present study is carried out to determine the trends in changes in temperature at Dhaka and Khulna divisions in Bangladesh using non parametric Mann-Kendall test for the period 1960-2015. Temperature is considered as one of the most important climatic variables in terms of climate change. Results show increasing trends in all monsoon seasons (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon season) for both divisions. Highest increasing rate is found in post monsoon season at Dhaka division with Sen’s slope estimate 0.27 ºC/decade which is statistically significant at 99% level. Winter season shows increasing trend at Dhaka division whereas decreasing trend at Khulna division. The highest decreasing rate at Khulna division is -0.06 ºC/decade which is statistically insignificant. In the month of January, trends of both divisions are decreasing. The increasing trend in central and high populated-industrial Dhaka division and decreasing trend in southern low populated-nonindustrial Khulna division is due to characteristics of the two divisions. The warmest year is 2010 for both Khulna and Dhaka divisions. The coldest year is 1981 for Khulna division while 1971 for Dhaka. The decadal change of temperature indicates that the colder season experiences lowest temperature whereas warmer season experiences highest temperature day by day. This is a clear indication of climate change in the region. The study for the trend of another valuable climatic parameter precipitation is recommended to understand the impact of climate change across the country.

Keywords : Trend , Temperature , Mann-Kendall test , Sen's slope estimate , Bangladesh:The present study is carried out to determine the trends in changes in temperature at Dhaka and Khulna divisions in Bangladesh using non parametric Mann-Kendall test for the period 1960-2015. Temperature is considered as one of the most important climatic variables in terms of climate change. Results show increasing trends in all monsoon seasons (pre-monsoon , monsoon and post monsoon season) for both divisions. Highest increasing rate is found in post monsoon season at Dhaka division with Sen’s slope estimate 0.27 ºC/decade which is statistically significant at 99% level. Winter season shows increasing trend at Dhaka division whereas decreasing trend at Khulna division. The highest decreasing rate at Khulna division is -0.06 ºC/decade which is statistically insignificant. In the month of January , trends of both divisions are decreasing. The increasing trend in central and high populated-industrial Dhaka division and decreasing trend in southern low populated-nonindustrial Khulna division is due to characteristics of the two divisions. The warmest year is 2010 for both Khulna and Dhaka divisions. The coldest year is 1981 for Khulna division while 1971 for Dhaka. The decadal change of temperature indicates that the colder season experiences lowest temperature whereas warmer season experiences highest temperature day by day. This is a clear indication of climate change in the region. The study for the trend of another valuable climatic parameter precipitation is recommended to understand the impact of climate change across the country.
Published in : The International Journal of Earth & Environmental Sciences

Authors : Priyanka Patel,Binita Desai

The production of commercial enzymes, including lipase from bacteria has always been the industrial choice due to its economical and commercial feasibility. Lipases are produced by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. However, we have focused on bacterial microbial lipases were economically importance of several properties. The present studies of the goals of this paper were isolation and identification of lipase producing bacteria from Oil contaminated soil. Screening and isolation of lipase producing strains of bacteria was carried out from different soil samples collected from various area in Surat, Gujarat, India. Tributyrin agar, selective media for isolation of lipase producing bacteria was used. Out of 41 isolates,20 were showing lipolytic activity. Agar well diffusion method used for further screening of best isolate for lipase production. The isolate AD1 with maximum zone of 27mm on Phenol red agar plate produce the lipase with the activity of 4.27U/ml obtained after 96hrs of incubation period at 37°C and 120 rpm at pH 7.0.

Keywords : Lipase , Tributyrin Agar Plate , Production
Published in : BMR Microbiology

Title : Isolation and characterization of yellow pigmented bacterial isolates from various types of soil ecosystems of Surat district, Gujarat and optimization of media for carotenoid production.
Authors : Aishwarya Y. Desai,Binita A. Desai

Yellow pigmented microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus, Flavobacterium sp. , Cytophaga sp. , Brevibacterium sp. , Exiguobacterium sp. , Erwinia sp. etc. are capable to produce high amount of Carotenoid. Therefore these natural pigments are a promising alternative source for natural as well as synthetic food grade pigments and have huge potential for applications in foodstuff because of their safety to use, nutritional and medicinal properties, non-toxicity, non-carcinogenicity and biodegradability. The aim of the present was to isolate the yellow pigmented microorganisms from soil, some of which are capable to produce amylase. We have isolated some intracellular yellow pigmented bacteria from different types of soil of Surat,Gujarat. 10 different types of soil samples were collected from which total 24 yellow pigmented bacteria were obtained. Isolates were identified and characterized by various morphological and biochemical tests. All the isolates than were subjected to determine pigment production rate on nutrient agar plates and amylase producing efficiency on starch agar plates. Some isolates are able produce amylase on starch agar plate. It was also found that Micrococcus sp. are diversely present in all types of soil whereas Xanthomonas sp. , Bacillus sp. , Microbacterium sp. And Xanthobacter sp. are mainly present in wet soil and garden soil. Isolate DS2 shows highest carotenoid production which is further used to produce carotenoid in media optimised in pH, temperature and salt concentration. Thus, the current study can be useful step for lab-scale pigment production, purification and its application in various industries as well as large scale amylase production from yellow pigmented organisms.

Keywords : Yellow pigment , Carotenoid , Pigment production rate , Amylase producing efficiency
Published in : BMR Microbiology

Authors : Akshatha B. G.

The present paper discusses the role of Prime Minister Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) in boosting the public wealth. This scheme provides financial inclusiveness and banking access to millions of households across the country and provides the insurance cover and gives a sense of security to millions of households across our country. By linking this scheme with various other government schemes money will be directly credited into the accounts of the beneficiaries thereby eliminating the intermediaries and curbing the leakages. This scheme providing access to micro-credit in the later phases of the scheme. But, many accounts opened under this scheme were lying dormant though this problem would rectify once the government links this scheme with other schemes such as MNREGA and other direct cash benefit transfer schemes. Overall this scheme could be a game changer and has potential to change the face of the country. It could help plug the leakages and improve the efficiency of targeted public distribution systems. The analysis made with the help of both primary data through structured questionnaire and secondary data through various sources like books, articles and published materials. Finally, it attempts to offer suitable suggestions to improve the status of PMJDY in uplifting then public wealth.

Keywords : Micro-credit , MNREGA , PMJDY , Public Wealth
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Quality assessment of groundwater in the rural environs of HRBR layout, Bangalore, India
Authors : Muhammad Muhsin Fathuddin,Rafeedah Fathuddin,Vimala S. Gandhi

Groundwater is normally considered a “safe-source” of drinking water as it is usually having a low microbial load that could be consumed without treatment. However, groundwater sources are often vulnerable to contamination, thus lowering their quality. The aim of the study was to examine the water quality in the rural environs of HRBR Layout, Bangalore, India for the presence of enteric bacteria. Twenty random sampling points were selected. The water sample collected from wells of residential homes in the rural environs of HRBR Layout and subjected to physiochemical analysis and bacterial examination. All samples examined showed higher dissolved oxygen values than the limit set by the World Health Organisation [WHO]. The total dissolved solids for the samples ranged from 199.33 ± 2.07 - 819.33 ± 2.01 mg/L while the total suspended solids ranged from 020.67 ± 3.06 - 393.33 ± 5.37 mg/L. According to WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards [BIS] Standards, none of the water samples are safe for drinking based on the MPN index, while according to Central Pollution Control Board [CPCB], the some of the water sample can be utilized (>50 MPN/ 100 ml). The following bacteria were isolated from the water samples: Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Yersinia spp. It is recommended that the water for domestic use in the study area be subjected to on-site treatment interventions to protect the households and the public from using such water.

Keywords : Biochemical Characterization Tests , Dissolved Solids , Groundwater , MPN , Water Quality
Published in : BMR Microbiology

Title : Build very simple design and cost effective Geiger-Muller counter
Authors : Newaz Morshed Remon,Captain Md. Tanjir Hassan,Md. Shamim Hassan,Md. Ghulam Zakir

This paper describes our first undergraduate project experience, final report and findings on the subject matter. Initially according to our project title, we were focused on developing a low cost detector which can detect radiation only. To make one of these kinds of detector doesn't take much and can be prepared at fairly low cost being very common project in nuclear science arena. The Geiger-Muller tube, or GM tube, is an extremely useful and inexpensive way to detect radiation. While the GM tube can only detect the presence and intensity of radiation, this is often all that is needed.

Keywords : :.Introduction , Statement of Problem , Objectives , Plan of action , Technical specification , Theoretical Overview , Hypothesis , Procedure , Geiger Bot Compatibility , Application , Discussion , conclusion , Acknowledgment , References
Published in : Journal of Recent Advances in Applied Sciences

Title : Turnaround time of analyses results requested in emergencies in paraclinical training and biochemistry research unit of the Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona University Hospital Center
Authors : Alain Ntoezara,Miora Koloina Ranaivosoa,Styvio Velonjara,Olivat Rakoto Alison,Andry Rasamindrakotroka

Turnaround time of analyses results, urgent biochemical parameters,period of on-call duty.:The Turnaround time of analyses results is defined as the delay from biological prescription to the results delivery. The medical decision often depends on the results of biological tests. The purpose of this study is to analyse quantitatively the delay of the results delivery period of the biochemical tests which are urgently requested. It is a prospective and descriptive study on a period of a whole week done in Paraclinical Training and Biochemistry Research Unit of the Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona University Hospital Center during the period of the on- call duty. A total of 129 files were recorded. The delay of the delivery of average results is 295 minutes with extremes of 35 and 368 minutes. The majority of requests contains 3 parameters per request. Many causes of the delay of the results are identified in this study such as the lack of staff in care services and at the laboratory, a long analysis circuit, the absence of automation of the pre and post analytic stages within our laboratory.

Keywords : Turnaround time of analyses results , urgent biochemical parameters ,period of on-call duty.:The Turnaround time of analyses results is defined as the delay from biological prescription to the results delivery. The medical decision often depends on the results of biological tests. The purpose of this study is to analyse quantitatively the delay of the results delivery period of the biochemical tests which are urgently requested. It is a prospective and descriptive study on a period of a whole week done in Paraclinical Training and Biochemistry Research Unit of the Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona University Hospital Center during the period of the on- call duty. A total of 129 files were recorded. The delay of the delivery of average results is 295 minutes with extremes of 35 and 368 minutes. The majority of requests contains 3 parameters per request. Many causes of the delay of the results are identified in this study such as the lack of staff in care services and at the laboratory , a long analysis circuit , the absence of automation of the pre and post analytic stages within our laboratory.
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : In vitro response of GA3 in caulogenesis of Fiver nut
Authors : Manju Rakesh,Patil NM

A protocol was optimized for the caulogenesis of fiver nut. Internodal explant showed immediate response in shoot regeneration and production of callus in in vitro cultures of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb. commonly known as fiver nut. MS medium supplemented with 1 to 10 mg/l GA 3 was found to induce callus. The Internodal explant inoculated on MS medium with 6 mg/l GA3 was found to produce shoots after 35 days of inoculation. Maximum amount of pale yellow coloured friable callus was produced in 7mg/l GA3 of dry weight 1.513± 0.108 g. The method can be used to generate callus and shoot which are natural sources of pharmaceutical Compounds without disturbing the natural population of the plant.

Keywords : fiver nut , caulogenesis , callus
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Authors : Bhumika Jariwala,Binita Desai

Keywords : Endophytic fungThe term “endophytes” includes a family of microorganisms that grow intra-and/or intercellularly in the tissues of higher plants without any symptoms on the plants in which they reside. In the present investigation ten medicinal plants were analyzed for the presence of endophytic fungi. A total of 25 fungal species were isolated from healthy leaves and identified based on the morphology of fungal culture and spores. Among them one unidentified isolate was group to mycelia sterilia fungi. Other twenty-four isolates were identified as 11 species belong to Alternaria spp. , Trichophyton spp. , Geotrichum spp. , Candida spp. , Aspergillus spp. , Aureobasidium spp. , Fusarium spp. , Exserohilum spp. , Curvularia spp. , Coccidioides spp. , Bipolaris spp. by morphological characters. i , Identification , Medicinal plants
Published in : BMR Microbiology

Title : Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of flower extract of Euphorbia milii
Authors : Megha Vyas,Binita Desai

An ornamental plant Euphorbia milii (Euphorbiaceae) is plays a role in folk medicine. The Chinese use it as a cure for cancer, and some Brazilians believe that it can cure warts. Phytochemical studies showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, steroids/phytosterols, anthocyanin, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins.The Antimicrobial activity studies of hexane, ethyl acetate,chloform,petroleum ether,and water extracts of flowers of Euphorbia milii were performed on gram positive organisms(Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium,Staphylococcus aureus, Entrococci ) and gram negative organisms (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris, Pusodomonas aeruginosa) by using cup plate method. The hexane extracts in the concentration of 5μg/ml, have shown considerable inhibition zone on as compared to other extracts.Bacillus subtlis and Bacillus megaterium have not show inhibition zone from solvent extract which was compared with the inhibition zone produced by standard amikacin sulphate (1μg/ml.).

Keywords : Euphorbia milii , Anti-microbial , Phytochemica
Published in : BMR Phytomedicine

Title : Isolation, Identification and Production of L-Asparaginase producing Bacteria from soil
Authors : Jahanvi Vachhani,Binita Desai

In Recent year, Microbial L-asparaginase have draw particular attention because of their potential antineoplastic properties and significant application in food industry. Out of 49 isolates 30 were screened as L-asparaginase producers. All the positive isolates likes Ecoli, Aerobacter, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Vibrio, Xanthomonas, Serratia, Staphlococcus, Streptococcus were Identify on the basis of morphological and biochemical characterization. Quantitative estimation was done by zone of hydrolysis method among them maximum zone given species GI3 shows the enzyme activity 18.66 IU/ml. Further this isolate was use to carry different application.

Keywords : asparaginase , soil sample , Identification , biochemical , submerged fermentation
Published in : BMR Microbiology

Title : Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Khasia Community people in Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh
Authors : Md. Sah Alam,M. Rafiqul Haider

The paper describes the traditional knowledge related to ethnomedicinal knowledge and plant parts utilization for curing various ailments by the Khasia community of Moulvibazar district. Total 45 plants were identified belonging to 37 families used by the Khasia community to treat different ailments. These medicinal plants were mostly used for treatment of anemia, asthma, cough, cold, constipation, dysentery, diarrhea, eczema, fever, headache, heart disease, itches, injury, jaundice, menstrual problem, piles, skin diseases, stomach problem, sex problems, toothache, urinary problem, rheumatism and others. Leaves were mostly used (35%), rhizome (19%) and root (12%) along with bark, stem, flowers, fruit and gum/resign.

Keywords : Ethnomedicinal , Medicinal plants , Khasia , Baidday’s , Moulvibazar , Bangladesh
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Effect of salinity on some morphophysiological characters of somatic embryogenesis-regenerated plants of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. Smooth Cayenne]
Authors : Kouadio Oi Kouadio Samuel,Yapo Edwige Sopie Salomé,Coulibaly Souleymane,Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire

Pineapple in Côte d'Ivoire is going through problems of various origins. Reviving this state imperatively requires both to clean up the plant material and to select varieties which easily adapt to the current pedoclimatic conditions of growing areas. This work assesses the impact of salinity on regenerated pineapple plants by somatic embryogenesis. The tests were carried out in polyethylene bags filled with sea sand, under semi-controlled conditions. Regenerated pineapple plants were watered with six saline solutions (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 14 g/L). Control plants were watered with water. The results revealed that salt stress reduces the studied morphophysiological parameters (number of leaves and roots, length of leaves and roots, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content, the carotenoids content and the relative water content). Pineapple tolerates low salt levels (2 and 4 g/L). However, important disturbances were observed in the metabolism of stressed plants with high levels of NaCl (6 and 10 g/L). As an adaptation strategy to maintain its metabolism from this stress, pineapple responded by accumulating proline. The highest saline content (14 g/L) was found to be lethal for pineapple plants.

Keywords : Acclimation , Ananas comosus , pineapple , sodium chloride , smooth cayenne
Published in : Journal of Recent Advances in Applied Sciences

Title : Impact of Participatory Integrated Watershed Management on Hydrological, Environment of Watershed and Socio-Economic, Case Study at Somodo Watershed, South Western Ethiopia.
Authors : Gizaw Tesfaye,Yalemtsehay Debebe,Tesfaye Yakob

Watershed is not simply the hydrological unit but also socio- political and ecological entity which plays crucial role in determining food, social, and economical security and provides life support services to rural people and its management through integrated participatory approach is useful strategies for reducing poverty, improving livelihood resilience and sustainability. Integrated and sustainable watershed management is an effective way to address complex water and land resource challenges and its implementation has not been successful in most countries including Ethiopia. Also there is no enough understanding on integrated watershed management in most parts of the country including South-Western part of Ethiopia. This paper mainly aimed to assess the suitability, acceptability and impact of participatory integrated watershed management at Somodo experimental watershed. Primary data was obtained through semi-structured questionnaires and group discussion with experimental group (60 HH) and control group (40 HH).These data were arranged with the help of Microsoft excel and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. The study was under taken for five years, 2011 to 2015, through managing the watershed by intensifying technologies to solve the identified problems of the watershed, and to improve the livelihood of the community through participatory and integrated approach. Soil erosion, decline in soil fertility, deforestation, crop and animal disease, fodder and forage problems are the leading ones. Major actions taken to overcome these problems were introduction of biological and physical Soil and water conservation measures

Keywords : Participatory integrated watershed management , Impact assessment and Experimental watershed
Published in : The International Journal of Earth & Environmental Sciences
Manuscript Code : fertility enhancement activities, establishment of community nursery and plantation of niche compatible multipurpose trees, introduction high yielding crops, introduction of apiculture and poultry technologies, and introduction of improved energy saving stoves. The study showed that participatory integrated watershed management have a Positive impact on hydrology, socio-economic and environment of the watershed. And the study recommended participatory integrated watershed management for successive development of watersheds with the problem similar to Somodo watershed. Any study, model based, in the watershed on hydrological behavior and others is also appreciable.

Title : Studies on the performance of different liquid media for sporulation of Metarrhizium anisopliae under laboratory condition
Authors : Nirmala D. Wayal,Shekhar K. Mehendale,Pravin P. Raut,Kumud V. Naik,Makarand S. Joshi

The present research was carried out to standardize the method for mass culturing the green muscardin fungus, M. anisopliae under konkan conditions under laboratory conditions during 2015-17. Study indicated that the mass multiplication of M. anisopliae on liquid / broth medium showed that the T-6 Czeapeks broth medium was the most suitable medium for mass multiplication of M. anisopliae (average mat weight of dry fungus 1554 mg), after 20 days of inoculation which was at par with T5-corn flour medium (1545.67 mg)., which also supported good growth of the fungus.

Keywords : M. anisolpae , Aphid , liquid medium
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Effect of pH on the antimicrobial susceptibility of planktonic-grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strains
Authors : Tsiry Rasamiravaka,Ando Lalaniaina Randrianierenana,Blandine Andrianarisoa,Marson Raherimandimby

The in vitro susceptibilities of bacteria to antibiotic are traditionally tested in media with a neutral pH. However, in a living organism and particularly in humans, the acidity varies a lot from one place to another. The present study aims to evaluate influence of pH in the expression of in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility among planktonic-grown Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® strains. Results show that the pH value affect antimicrobial activity differently, depending upon the strain used. Indeed, P. aeruginosa and E. coli are more susceptible to tetracycline under acidic and neutral pH condition whereas S. aureus is equally susceptible to tetracycline in all tested pH condition. Conversely, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. aureus are more susceptible to erythromycin, kanamycin and gentamycin under neutral and alkaline pH condition. This preliminary study highlights that pH parameter should be considered in evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness and this is a point that should be considered by antibiotic prescriber in delivering antibiotic prescription.

Keywords : Antimicrobial susceptibility , pH , Pseudomonas , Staphylococcus , Escherichia
Published in : BMR Microbiology

Title : Haematological and Biochemical perturbations related to cardiovascular diseases seen in the University Hospital Center of Befelatanana Antananarivo Madagascar
Authors : Zafindrasoa Domoina Rakotovao Ravahatra,Miora Koloina Ranaivosoa,Fidiniaina Mamy Randriatsarafara,Andriamiadana Luc Rakotovao,Andry Rasamindrakotroka

plasma creatinine

Keywords : Cardiovascular diseases
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine
Manuscript Code : Cardiovascular disease is a real public health problem. This study aims to describe the haematological and biochemical perturbations related to this disease in order to ensure a better management of the patients.Thisretrospective and descriptive study covers a period of 20 months at the Laboratory Unit of University Hospital Center Joseph RasetaBefelatanana Antananarivo. All results of haematological and biochemical tests of patients with cardiovascular disease were exploited.Among the 547 patients with cardiovascular diseases, 416 (76.1%) (IC95: 72.2-79.5) had one or more perturbations of the biological tests. As for the biochemical perturbations, 155 patients (28.3%) had high plasma creatinine, 230 patients (42%) had high plasma urea and 84 patients (15.4%) hyperglycemia. The neutrophilic leukocytosis (20.3%), leukopenia (15.7%), normocytic anemia (14.4%), polycythemia (7.5%), thrombocytosis (6.8%) and thrombocytopenia (6.6%) were the most observed haematological perturbations. The elevation of plasma creatinine was significantly associated with normocytic anemia (85.1%) (p = 0.002). Patients with cerebral vascular accidents had neutrophilic leukocytosis in the majority of cases (79.4%) (p = 0.03).A blood count and a complete biochemical test should be prescribed in any patient with cardiovascular disease to better follow the evolution and the prognosis of the disease in order to improve the management of the patient.

Title : Effect of pH on biofilm formation and motilities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strains
Authors : Tsiry Rasamiravaka,Ando Lalaniaina Randrianierenana,Marson Raherimamdimby,Blandine Andrianarisoa

Biofilms are communities of microorganism enclosed in an extracellular matrix attached to various surfaces. Biofilms and motilities may represent negative impacts in health and industrial sectors, however they also play crucial ecological role. The main objective of this study was to estimate biofilm formation and motilities abilities of three common bacteria under different culture condition (media of growth and pH). Results show that pH variation (from 5 to 8) and composition of media growth (minimum and complex media) have little influence on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. However, biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 is inhibited at pH 5 and 6 in both complex and minimum media. P. aeruginosa swimming, swarming and twitching motilities are not affected by pH variation whereas S. aureus and E. coli are only able to twitch in complex media. This preliminary study demonstrated that pH may influence bacterial behavior formation particularly for P. aeruginosa

Keywords : Biofilm , Motilities , pH , Pseudomonas , Staphylococcus , Escherichia
Published in : BMR Microbiology

Title : The effect of FDI on economic growth in West Africa countries a panel data approach
Authors : Willy Tozoke Laou Man Cheong,Hou Junjun

This study estimates the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth of nine (9) West Africa countries during the period of 1995 to 2015, using panel data approach. As a result, the FDI is statistically significant and has a positive effect on economic growth in West Africa countries. As well, FDI needs support and directive from the government to have better productive activities in order to avoid its adverse effect on GDP of West Africa countries.

Keywords : Economic growth , FDI , Panel data approach , West Africa countries
Published in : Journal of Economic Research

Title : Dietary Habits and Related Socio-demographics among Secondary School Adolescents of Zanzibar, Tanzania
Authors : Hawa Shariff Mbawalla,Khadija Ally

socio-demographics, dietary habits and eating behaviours. Frequency distributions, cross-tabulations and Kendall’s correlations were used for analysis. Results: Four hundred adolescents participated in the study, mean age 16.5 years (1.03) and were mostly from socio-demographically advantaged families. Close to a third (28.0%) ate healthy foods and 9.5% ate vegetables on daily basis. Snacking was found in 57.3% of all adolescents and that 33.5% ate either sweets, sugared beverages daily. Younger aged adolescents and those with educated parents were eating healthy compared to their counterparts. Conclusion: Eating healthy foods items was uncommon among the adolescents while snacking was much prevalent habit. Parental education level and employment status was associated with healthy eating and snacking habit

Keywords : : Dietary habits , Socio-demographics , Adolescents
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research
Manuscript Code : and that healthy eating positive correlated with snacking habits.

Title : Comparative study of some growth attributies of two varieties of Citrullus Lanatus Thunb. (Water Melon) cultivated in Umudike Abia State Nigeria
Authors : Kelechukwu Chris Egbucha,Duke Nduka Aghale,N. Umeoka,Richards Ibiam

Four growth attributes from two varieties of the vegetable crop Citrullus lanatus Thunb. (Water melon) cultivated in Umudike, Abia State of Nigeria were studied as the crops were growing on the field. Seeds of the two varieties viz. Wantoma60 and Raider52 were obtained from an Agricultural Research Institute within the town and planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design within the Botanical Garden of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Data on number of leaves, number of branches, vine length and number of internodes were collected from the growing plants of the two varieties. Student t-test statistical analysis tool was employed in analyzing and comparing the mean values of data. In all four parameters measured significant differences were recorded between the varieties at P < 0.05. Variety Wantoma60 performed higher than variety Raider52 in all parameters measured. The implication of the result is that variety Wantoma60 mmay be better adapted to grow vegetatively than variety Raider 52 in the climatic and edaphic conditions of Umudike south-east Nigeria.

Keywords : Vine length , internode , carotenoid , chlorophyll , edaphic , t-value
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : A Study on clinical evaluation and prescribing patter of drugs used in schizophrenia patients
Authors : Swarajyalaxmi S.,P. Kranthi Raju

The prospective observational study conducted at Swasthik Samalochana Hospital, Warangal during February2013-July 2013. The study enrolled 150 in-patients and out-patients with Schizophrenia were included in the study who met inclusion criteria, after obtaining their informed consent. In 150 Patients in the Psychiatry clinic were characterized into based on predominant symptoms abnormal behavior, Hallucinations. In Psychological patients 51% males and 48% females were suffering schizophrenia disorder and various causes are 43.3% of family history, 12.6% of alcoholic, 6.6% family problems, 7.3% of thyroid disorders, 1.3% of post-menopausal problems. In this study nearly 50% of the patients had 3 risk factors primarily like family history, alcohol, financial problems. The necessity of patient counseling by a clinical pharmacist plays a major role in educational interventions and healthy life style modifications were an essential part in the prevention of schizophrenia and different psychological disorders of central nervous system. Abnormal behaviour, hallucinations and aggressive are the most predominant symptoms in this study.

Keywords : Schizophrenia , hallucinations , psychological patients , psychiatry clinic
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Title : University Education as a Service: Issues of Quality
Authors : Emma Darkoa Aikins,Akua Ahyia Adu-Oppong,Goddana Mensima Darko

This study was conducted to assess the service quality of university education from the perspective of the immediate beneficiaries of the service. Students as the immediate beneficiaries of university education have key expectations of what constitutes quality in the context of universities as service organisations. Within that framework, this study examined the claims of other researchers on issues of quality in university education. The issues reviewed revolved around the concept of quality, university education in the global context, quality in service delivery, university education as a service, quality assurance practices in university education and the parameters for measuring quality. The study also examined studies on quality within the context of Ghanaian public universities and students perception of service quality. Available studies reviewed showed that quality in university education has been defined and measured with insignificant regard for students’ concept of quality. Most of the studies reviewed conceptualise quality in university education in terms of meeting the standards and requirements set by the accreditation authorities. The studies showed that students’ opinion about the quality of services provided by universities which in the end determines the employability and socioeconomic fitness of graduates for the world of work is ignored. This paper therefore examines the issues of quality from a multi-stakeholder concept and brings attention to the key variables on which quality in university education should revolve.

Keywords : University , Education , Service Quality , Students
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Estimation of odds ratio with misclassification methods in Lung cancer
Authors : Ch. Sreelatha,B. Muniswamy

Odds ratio is one measure used in epidemiological to study the association between the exposure and the corresponding disease. In a case control study is conducted to examine the relationship between smoking habit and Lung cancer. In this study we work on mismeasurement method. The Mismeasurement can be separated into two types, namely non-differential and differential mismeasurement. Misclassification of exposure variables in epidemiologic studies may lead to biased estimation of parameters and loss of power in statistical inferences. Simple estimates for predictive values when misclassification is nondifferential are presented. Using them, we estimated the corrected log odds ratio. In this we have to find the effects of non-differential misclassification when 5% of smokers are misclassified as nonsmokers and 8% of non smokers are misclassified as smokers and also we are study the effects of differential misclassification when 20% of smoking and non smoking cases, but not controls, are misclassified as nonsmokers and smokers.

Keywords : Odds ratio , misclassification , non-differential and differential mismeasurement , log odds ratio.
Published in : BMR Medicine

Title : Traditional knowledge on use of medicinal plants in Kitui County, Kenya
Authors : Daniel Patrick Kisangau,Matheaus Kauti,Royford Mwobobia,Titus Kanui,Nashon Musimba

Background: The use of traditional medicines in Kenya accounts for more than 70% or more of basic health-care treatments. Documentation of herbal plants is necessary because they are becoming more important, especially due to escalating costs of drugs and the focus on organic products in most developing countries. More so, with the development of resistance of pathogens to drugs, ethno-veterinary and ethno-human medicine might be the route to take since herbs tend to be broad spectrum in use. The aim of this study was to document traditional knowledge on ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants in Kitui County. Method: Data was collected through semi-structured open-ended questionnaires administered to 68 households in the study area. Simple random sampling was used to select households who were the final sampling units. Results: Majority of the respondents (51.5%) had attended school up to primary level. Only about 6% of respondents were engaged as full-time herbalists whereas 90% had acquired traditional knowledge through informal trainings. A total of 62% of the informants acquired traditional herbal knowledge through apprenticeship from relatives with 29.4% of respondents taking between six months to one year to learn. A total of 42 plant species in 25 families were used in treating one or more disease conditions. Aloe secunduflora locally known as Kiluma was the most common medicinal plant, mentioned by 71% of the respondents. Other commonly used plants were Acacia nilotica, Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Azadirachta indica. Plucking of leaves (45.0%), digging of roots (31.4%) and debarking (11.6%) were the most commonly used methods of harvesting medicinal plants. The most commonly used plant parts were leaves (42%), stem bark (31%) and roots (21%). Acacia tortilis and Terminalia brownii were the most commonly used in the category of non-medicinal plant uses with 30% and 25% use frequencies respectively. The most common non-medicinal plant uses in the area were firewood, charcoal and animal feed. Conclusion: The study provides crucial ethnopharmacological lead towards discovery of natural drugs for treatment of both human and livestock diseases in Kitui County. The study provides platform for conservation of the documented plant resources based on their vulnerability to over-exploitation.

Keywords : Traditional knowledge , medicinal plants , Kitui
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Isolation and Characterization of Heavy Metals-Resistant Bacteria from Contaminated Wastewater in Mine Tailings of Itogon, Benguet Philippines
Authors : Fe F. Coronado,Carmel C. Gacho,Myra L. Tansengco,Joven R. Barcelo

Heavy metals resistant bacteria were obtained from wastewater samples in mining sites of Itogon, Benguet, Philippines. The isolates were cultured in a medium with different concentrations of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb). Out of the 150 initial isolates, the 4 isolates, which survived in each 100 ppm of Zn, Cr, Pb, and Ni exhibited high metal resistance and were identified at the Philippine Genome Center (UP Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines) as isolates A). Acinetobacter sp. junii, B). Acinetobacter sp. tandoii, C). Bacillus cereus, D). Bacillus toyonensis. Sample digestion with HCl showed higher heavy metal reduction results compared with the undigested, thus suggesting that acid treatment gave better extraction of metal components prior to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Biosorption of heavy metals were highest in 75 ppm of lead. Results showed that the isolate Bacillus toyonensis can reduce lead by 92.43 % in 5 days at room temperature.

Keywords : Acinetobacter sp. Junii , Acinetobacter sp. Tandoii , , biosorption , Itogon , Benguet , heavy-metal resistant.
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Hodgkin's Disease Variant of Richter's Syndrome: A case report with review of the literature
Authors : Maaroua Neji,Hafid Zahid,Jean Uwingabiye,Anas Yahyaoui,Mohamed Allaoui,Rachid Hadef,Mohamed Oukabli,Nezha Messaoudi

Richter syndrome transformation

Keywords : Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research
Manuscript Code : The transformation chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) into Richter syndrome represents aggressive clinical evolution of CLL. In most cases, this transformation corresponds to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but in very rare cases it can lead to Hodgkin's Disease Variant of Richter's Syndrome. We report a case of CLL transformed into Hodgkin's disease type of Richter's Syndrome in a 70-year-old male patient. Microscopic examination showed the presence of large tumor cells with the morphological and immunophenotypic features in favor of classical Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. The transformation of CLL into Hodgkin's disease poses a problem of histogenetic diagnosis. According to the literature, the clonal relationship between CLL and Hodgkin's disease is likely with prognostic value. Two forms of Hodgkin's Disease Variant of Richter's Syndrome are described with different prognoses: a form that corresponds to a true transformation of the CLL into a Hodgkin's disease, a poor prognosis and a second form that corresponds to the co-existence of CLL and Hodgkin's disease with better prognosis.

Title : Nutritional and Phytochemical content of indigenous leafy vegetables consumed in Botswana
Authors : Sarah Tshepho Pona Matenge,Jiazhou Li,Samuel Apau,Roy Tapera

Plant materials especially green leafy vegetables contain nutrients and phytochemicals whose consumption has been associated with protecting the human body from chronic diseases. With the aim to promote the utilisation of indigenous leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Botswana, nutrient and phytochemical composition of three leafy vegetables: Amaranth (Amarunthus spp.), Spider plant (Cleome gynandra), and Cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata) were evaluated. The moisture content of the vegetables was high ranging from (84.1 ± 0.05 (Amarunthus spp.) to 88.8 ± 0.10% wet basis (Cleome gynandra). The ash content ranged between 1.90 ± 0.06 % (Amarunthus spp.) and 3.0 ± 0.04 % (Cleome gynandra). All the leafy indigenous vegetables were found to be poor sources of protein, fat and fibre. The total phenolics ranged from 10.4 ± 0.5 to 40.4 ± 0.11 mg/g DW. Amarunthus spp. had the highest phenolic content (40.4 ± 0.11mg/g DW). 3,4-dihydroxbenzoic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids were found to be present in Amaranthus spp., 3,4-dihydroxbenzoic, 4-hydroxbenzoic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids where found in Vigna unguiculata whilst vanillic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids were found in Cleome gynandra. Ferulic acid appeared in all the samples analysed, however, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant. The results from the study emphasize the role of these vegetables as a source of nutrients and polyphenols which could contribute to their health promoting properties and offer enormous opportunities for the functional food industry.

Keywords : Indigenous leafy vegetables , Phenolic compounds , HPLC , Proximate analysis , Vigna unguiculata , Cleome gynandra , Amarunthus spp.
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : Assessing the effectiveness of Bulacan State University administrative personnel
Authors : Thelma V. Pagtalunan

The findings of this study maybe used by the top and middle- level administrators of the Bulacan State University to find out how effective are they in terms of carrying out their duties and responsibilities. Also, the findings of this study will enable them to make necessary improvements in terms of managing the University and their respective units or departments.

Keywords : Bulacan State University
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Effects of Early weed removal on some yield attributes of Zea mays L. var. TZB (FARZ 34) Cultivated in Owerri,South east Nigeria
Authors : Kelechukwu Chris Egbucha,Hauwa Isa,Duke Nduka Aghale

Investigation was conducted on the effects of early weed removal on some yield attributes of Zea mays L. var. TZB (FARZ 34) cultivated in Owerri, Nigeria with the aim of evaluating the extent of reduction in total output occasioned by delays in weed removal following seed sprouting. Healthy seeds of this variety were obtained from State Agricultural Development Corporation. The seeds were sown onto manually prepared plots in a Completely Randomized Design. Weeds on treated subplots were removed ten day following germination while those growing on the other plots (untreated) were not removed until 30 days after germination. Data on yield attribute parameters such as number of marketable cobs per plant, green earlength of undehusked cob, thousand grain weight etc. were collected. Results showed that difference in number of cobs per plant between crops harvested from treated and untreated subplots was statistically significant p<0.01. Other yield attributes investigated gave similar results with varying degrees of percentage yield differences between crops from treated and untreated subplots. The implication of this is that Zea mays competitive capability with weeds at early vegetative stages was inadequate comparable to that of the weeds. Incorporating early weed removal in the total farming plan will result in substantial yield gain for growers.

Keywords : Weeds , Infestation ,Yield , Zea mays , Dehusked , Cobs.
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Traditional herbs used for snake bites among hill Tribes of Tamil Nadu - Literature Review
Authors : Sathish Kumar Krishnamurthy,Ranjith Kumar M.,Monisha A.

Mortality due to Snakebites occurs in South Asian countries in highest ratio, particularly in India. Giving primary care in initial stages is very crucial.[1] In India, Tribals’ save themselves using traditional medicines for many centuries including poisonous bites.[2] Tribals’ of Tamilnadu identify and preserve herbals from ancient times 2 . Literatures (Four) were identified and reviewed for ethnomedicine used among tribals of Tamilnadu for snakebites during 1990 to 2014. Among hill tribes (Palliyar, Irular and Malayali) 18 plants were identified for treating snakebites either individually or as a combination drugs. These herbs were advised with food restrictions. Literatures on ethnomedicine by Tamilnadu tribals need to be documented. We recommend training the health care units in tribal areas on knowledge of ethnomedicine in case of emergency including snake bites to save lives.

Keywords : Snake bites , hill tribes
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Sensory Evaluation and Acceptability of Soy -yogurt with Different Grouping of Treatments
Authors : Amjad Raeisi,Vahid Farshbaf Derhami,Ali Hosseini ,Sajjad Dehghani

2% sucrose with orange flavor essence

Keywords : Flavor essences , Sensory evaluation , Soy-yogurt , Sweetener
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research
Manuscript Code : and 2% sucrose with banana flavor essence.

Title : The role of social capital in maintaining the optimization of local agricultural institutions in the province of Bali – Indonesia
Authors : I Ketut Darma,Made Kembar Sri Budhi,Anak Agung Sri Purnami

Developing countries, such as Indonesia, in general, is an agricultural country. Agricultural development is a prerequisite for economic growth and national development. In addition, the agricultural sector can also absorb a lot of manpower and opening of the employment, as well as foreign exchange saver. The purpose of this review is to determine the role of social capital in maintaining the optimization of local agricultural institutions in the province of Bali. Social capital consists of three main elements, namely trust, norms, and networks. Subak is an agency in Bali that handle agricultural irrigation systems. To increase the capacity of farmers and the level of adoption of agricultural innovations is needed revitalization of social capital, especially in the development and strengthening of social capital and institutional farmer. A high social capital would open the possibility of resolving the complexity of the problems more easily, so that the social capital could encourage the emergence of institutions and modern organizations with the principles of openness, and networks based on the norms and trust to achieve common goals.

Keywords : Unequal distribution of income among regions , the natural resources of labor absorption , agglomeration ,economic growth
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Plants used in ethnoveterinary practices by Sugalis of Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : B. Nageswara Rao Naik,Z. Vishnuvaradhan

Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh

Keywords : Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine
Manuscript Code : The present study enumerated a total of 30 ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species used by Sugalis of Krishna district in Andhra Pradesh, India. This study gains prominence by the fact that such studies were not reported earlier from Krishna district. Nine Sugali villages (thands) constitute the present study area and information was elicited from tribal vaidyas (medical practitioners) and elderly people in the age group of 55-65 years. The 30 plant species belong to 19 different families and are used for the remedy of 10 livestock diseases. The findings of present study tally with the previous published reports in that the same plant species were used in the treatment of other veterinary ailments of livestock also. The medicinal use of these 30 plants species in conjecture with their similar utility reported earlier led to believe that the phytochemical screening of these plants would result in valuable active compounds of great veterinary significance.

Title : A study on indigenous herbal remedies practiced by tribes of Kasargod District, Kerala
Authors : Anish Babu V B,Antony V T

Indigenous systems of medicine are one of the natural health care systems practiced by all human cultures irrespective of geographic realm since time immemorial. The rich repository of biodiversity in each area paves the way for the development of such healthcare rehearses. Kerala, the southernmost tip of Indian Peninsula is really blessed with luxuriant vegetation and biodiversity, and the same has immense role to meet indigenous healthcare needs. The present study reports the medicinal plants used by different tribal communities residing in Kasargod District in Kerala. Floristic and ethnobotanical tribal knowledge was collected through extensive groundtruthing and interviews. A total of 44 plants, their vernacular name, plant parts used and method of preparation are recorded. The medicinal potentialities of plants are important and could be explored to formulate newer drugs with more potential.

Keywords : Ethnobotany , Malavettuva , Marattis , Mavilans , Koragas
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Antifungal activity and Phytochemical screening from leaf extract of Manilkara zapota and Averrhoa carambola.
Authors : Dimpal Mewara,Honey Tamakuwala,Binita Desai

Natural products, such as plants extract, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug discoveries because of the availability of chemical diversity. Bioactive compounds are secondary metabolites in all plant cells. Leaves are one of the highest accumulatory plant parts for such compounds. Manilkara zapota belongs to the family Sapotaceae. The leaves are antibiotic, astringent and febrifuge. Averrhoa carambola belongs to family Oxalidaceae. The leaves are used for chicken pox, ringworm and headache and a decoction of leaves is used to arrest vomiting. Here we are reporting the phytochemical constituents and Antimicrobial Activity of three different extracts (Aqueous, Ethyl Acetate and Petroleum ether) from leaves of Manilkara zapota and Averrhoa carambola against pathogenic Fungi and Yeast. Preliminary screening of Manilkara zapota revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Quinones and Glycosides and that of Averrhoa carambola shows presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Glycosides and Quinones. Antifungal activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The two plant leaves extract showed different degree of activity against the organisms being investigated. The Ethyl Acetate extract of Averrhoa carambola was found to be most effective whereas Petroleum ether extract of Manilkara zapota was most effective against pathogenic fungi and yeast.

Keywords : Mailkara zapota , Averrhoa carambola , Phytochemical , Antifungal
Published in : BMR Phytomedicine

Title : Reference values of hematological parameters in healthy population in Morocco
Authors : Souhail Mouline,Hafid Zahid,Anass Yahyaoui,Rachid Elhadef,Nezha Messaoudi

Our study aims to determine the reference values of the CBC in an adult and healthy moroccan population. This is a study of 996 cases including 874 men and 122 women whose samples were analyzed by the Coulter LH 750 controller then entered and analyzed by SPSS statistical software. The reference values obtained for the main parameters are: GB between 5,10x109- 11,58 x 109/L for women and 4,60 x 109- 13,81 x 109/L for men, PNN between 2,05 x 109 – 9,46 x 109/L for women and 1,60 x 109 – 9,80 x 109/L for men and the LYM between 0,42 x 109 – 4,18 x 109/L for women and 0,59 x 109 – 4,41 x 109/L for men. The HB between 10.10 to 16.97 g / dL for women and 13.8 to 20.21 g / dL for men, PLQ between 121,13 x 109 - 341,00 x 109/L for women and 108,00×109-327,25 x 109 /L for men. Comparing our results with those of literature or other studies revealed the existence of several dissimilarities. They are mainly due to ethnicity, smoking and habits of individuals. This preliminary study has achieved the baseline blood counts for a Moroccan sample and detects potential differences among populations, often involving diagnostic decisions

Keywords : Reference values - cell blood count - reference interval
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research
Manuscript Code : hence the need for the establishment of our own intervals reference through more extended studies in different regions of Morocco. This must be done under the responsibility of the health authorities and the values obtained must be validated to be applied to the disparities revealed by our study.

Title : An analysis of workplace gender segregation and its impact on women’s advancement: A literature review
Authors : Akua Ahyia Adu-Oppong,Stephen Bugu Kendie

Occupational gender segregation has been at the heart of debates about gender inequality. High levels of segregation have been considered to impose constraints on careers, and generally to be at the root of gender inequalities. This paper provides a detailed review of literature on occupational gender segregation in order to provide explanation from both economic and non-economic arguments of the continuous persistence of segregation in the workplace and how it impacts women’s career advancement. It begins with an overview of the theoretical explanations of occupational gender segregation and what existing research suggests is responsible for the difference between the employment outcomes of men and women. The second section addresses the extent to which the attempt to discern a monocausal explanation for this phenomenon is flawed with the consideration that the phenomena inherent in gender segregation are too complex to be explained by a single argument in all cases. The paper concludes with a summary of policies and measures proposed by the literature to address segregation with a series of key issues and opportunities for women’s workplace advancement.

Keywords : Gender , segregation , advancement , inequalities , workplace
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Role of micro finance in empowerment of fisherwomen in coastal Karnataka
Authors : Chandrashekhar Moger,K. B. Dhananjaya

The poor, especially the coastal fisher community, has found it extremely difficult to locate alternate sources of income and employment opportunities, in the wake of their inadequate financial credibility. But the recent economic perspectives on development have pointed towards the importance of micro finance in the empowerment of the fisherwomen. One method of access to micro finance by the coastal fisher community, fisher women in particular, is the Self Help Group-Bank linkage programme, where banks provide finance to the groups for undertaking economic activities. Thus the programme provides access to associations of fisher women, who, otherwise un-united, would have found themselves not eligible for bank finance. It is expected that the access of such institutional credit would bring in social, personal and financial empowerment of fisher women. The present paper is an evaluation of the findings of the study undertaken to reveal the role of micro finance in coastal fisher women empowerment. The study utilized both primary and secondary data. Primary data relating to the socioeconomic background and various other aspects relating to empowerment of the fisherwomen were collected through pre-designed questionnaire from 100 fisherwomen representing 20 SHGs from the selected five coastal villages in Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka state. A separate interview schedule was designed, pilot tested and used for data collection. The schedule was used to collect specific information from each member of the fisherwomen SHGs. The study found that Women status increased after joining of the SHGs 90% in the study area. It is noticed that all the respondents agreed that micro finance brought Respect from Layman or Society and self-confidence and improved their skill. Majority of the respondents expressed that their awareness about environment improved after taking part in micro finance programs actively. Maximum number of respondents accepted that microfinance has brought economic development directly and indirectly happiness and peace in the family. The present study evidences the existence of strong linkages of the SHGs with banks for empowerment of fisherwomen. The very reason of members, as opined by them, in joining the group is the improved chances of accessibility to loans. Thus, there exists strong positive relation between the reasons for joining the group, and the existence of bank linkages. The strong bank linkage that exists, can visibly enhance the opportunity of members to access loans, undertake economic activities, and develop skills. . But, the SHG- driven micro-finance may suffer from serious limitations, reducing its positive impact on empowerment. The lack of transparency in the SHG activities, and inaccessibility to official records may further hinder the effectiveness of the movement. To conclude, the economic activities of SHGs are quite successful. In this way, SHGs in two villages of Uttara Kannada District were very successful to develop Fisher women empowerment in coastal belt.

Keywords : self-help groups , microfinance , women empowerment , Income Generating Activities
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Cord Bilirubin Levels as a Predictive Marker for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia: A Prospective Study
Authors : Parul Sehgal,S Wasim,V Chandar,A Gupta,A Rawat,V Kalra,N Pandita,N K Bhat

Purpose Hyperbilirubinemia is the most common medical problem in newborn infants. Early discharge is recommended but hospital readmission is a cause of concern among clinicians ,and early discharge of neonates is recommended. This inturn carries a risk of delayed recognition of significant hyperbilirubinemia.A cross-sectional analytical study was done primarily to evaluate the predictive value of cord bilirubin level for identifying term and near term neonates for subsequent hyperbilirubinemia. Materials &methods: Cord bilirubin levels at birth and subsequently serum bilirubin levels at 72 hours were assessed in 100 neonates. The cut off value was estimated beyond which there was significant hyperbilirubinemia. Result The cut off value of cord bilirubin >2.02 mg/dl had sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 70.8% respectively with positive predictive value of 0.39 and negative predictive value of 0.965 for subsequent hyperbilirubinemia. Conclusion The cut-off value of cord bilirubin level estimated is 2.02 mg/dl can be used to predict significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

Keywords : Hyperbilirubinemia , cord bilirubin , neonate
Published in : BMR Medicine

Title : i AMF – Centralized database of arbuscular mycorrhizal distribution, phylogeny and taxonomy
Authors : Manju M. Gupta,Nikhat Naqvi,Prabhat Kumar

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal database, named iAMF (www.amfungi.aurobindo.du.ac.in) is first digital database on biodiversity and phylogeny of these beneficial fungi in India. It provides access to data on 161 species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) along with comprehensive information on their GPS location of reported occurrence, taxonomy, molecular sequence, phylogeny and bibliography. The database is based on primary data collected by authors through ongoing surveys (year 2009-2017) and secondary data from earlier studies (2008–2016). Data is carefully curated to verify that it corresponds to the reference publication and a valid species name is used. Apart from being ecological meta-analysis data source, it would have significant application in selection of non-indigenous AMF inoculum in agriculture, reforestation, horticultural and land reclamation practices.

Keywords : AM fungi , database , arbuscular , phpMiniAdmin
Published in : Journal of Recent Advances in Applied Sciences

Title : Screening, Production and Antibacterial Activity of Bacteriocin from Lactobacillus spp.
Authors : Hinal A. Gandevia,Nehal D. Rana,Binita A. Desai

The intent of the study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus producing bacteriocin isolated from samples like dairy product (milk, curd), meat (mutton, chicken), sea food (fish, black prawns, white prawns), and alcoholic beverages (red wine, rose wine). The isolation was carried out by using de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar medium. Total 55 isolates were obtained from 12 samples. The isolates from samples were confirmed as Lactobacillus spp. based on their morphological and biochemical characteristics. According to research work, 10 different isolates of Lactobacillus spp. were isolated from samples under study they are Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus farciminis. There has been an explosion of basic and applied research on Lactobacillus spp. bacteriocins, primarily due to their potential application as biopreservatives in food and food products to inhibit the growth of food borne bacterial pathogens. Isolates were subjected to antibacterial activity test using agar well diffusion method. Escherichia coli (MTCC No.118), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC No.737) and Bacillus cereus (MTCC No.1305) were found to be sensitive to bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus spp. whereas, Salmonella typhi (MTCC No.733) was found to be resistant to bacteriocin. Therefore, it has a potential for application as a biopreservative in different food product as such or in combination with other preservation methods.

Keywords : Bacteriocin , Lactobacillus , Antibacterial activity
Published in : BMR Microbiology

Title : A comprehensive review on Psidium guajava Linn (Amaratafalam)
Authors : Raksha Mishra,Pallavi Tiwari,Mayank Srivastava,C. S. Singh,Saurav Ghoshal

Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. Psidium guajava Linn, belonging to the Myrtaceae family, has been reported anti-diarrheal, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, lipid lowering, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Psidium guajava is an important food crop and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical countries is widely used like food and in folk medicine around of the world. The phytochemical screening of bark of Psidium guajava revealed the presence of metabolites and compounds tested for such as flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugar, terpenes, saponin, anthraquinones and alkaloids. The proximate analysis of dried bark gave a moisture content of 0.41 %, ash value of 11.5 %, acid insoluble ash of 4.5 %, Water soluble ash of 9.5 %, alcohol soluble extractive value of 20.8 % and water extractive value of 24.8 %.

Keywords : Psidium guajava L , Myrtaceae , Phytochemical constituents , Pharmacological actions
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Survey and documentation of indigenous and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by the Irular tribe of Nilgiri District, Tamilnadu
Authors : Panneer Selvam K,R. Ezhumala,A. Vijayaragavan,M. Senthilkumar,P. Samydurai,M. Saradha,K. Praveen Kumar

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the ethnic groups (Irular) in Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. The tribal communities of Irular have rich knowledge about medicinal plants and its traditional uses. Therefore, we have done an exhaustive ethnobotanical survey in this area. In this present investigation, it is observed that the tribes being used 43 wild valuable plant species belonging to 28 families were identified with relevant information and documented in this paper with regard to their botanical name, family, vernacular name, parts used and utilization by the local tribal people for different human ailments. The common diseases treated by the herbal practitioner were asthma, cold, cough, indigestion, aphrodisiacs, paralyzes, skin diseases and diabetes.

Keywords : Ethnic groups , ITK , Irulas and skin diseases.
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of a Polybotanical Multinutrient Formula
Authors : Cheppail Ramachandran,Barry J. Wilk,Steven J. Melnick,Isaac Eliaz

The novel polybotanical multinutrient formula (PMF) IonShield was analyzed for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMF is a blend of botanical extracts and nutrients designed for cellular protection from free radical damage and oxidative stress such as from environmental, technological, occupational or medical related radiation exposure. This formula was shown to possess significant dose-dependent antioxidant activity over a broad range of concentrations. PMF was also shown to inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF- production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with complete inhibition at 2000 µg/mL and inhibition of H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation with about 50% reduction at 500 µg/mL. Additionally, both NF-B activation and COX-II activity are also inhibited by PMF with about 40% reduction in COX-II activity at 1000 µg/mL. Demonstration of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties suggest potential applications of PMF as a dietary supplement for the amelioration of effects related to oxidative stress and free radical damage.

Keywords : Antioxidant , anti-inflammatory , TNF- , lipid peroxidation , NF-kB , cyclooxygenase-II
Published in : BMR Phytomedicine

Title : Ex-vivo analysis of the antimicrobial property of crude extract of cinnamon as a mouth rinse
Authors : Priyanka Mariam George,Sheeja S Varghese

Background: Natural products have been found to be effective with least side effects as compared to commercially available synthetic treatment options. Medicinal plants produce bioactive molecules which show both antibacterial and antifungal activities. The bark powder ethanol extract and root oil of cinnamon has antimicrobial and anti inflammatory property. Cinnamon has a long history of usage as a medicinal product. Chinese medicines have used cinnamon as a neuro protective agent. It is also known to be used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since the antibiotic resistance is increasing, and natural products are known to have antimicrobial property, it seemed worthwhile in assessing its efficacy as a mouth rinse. Aim & objective: To assess the antimicrobial property of cinnamomum verum as a mouthrinse compared to 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate. Materials and methods: 30 participants were selected randomly for the study. They were divided into 3 groups. Pre and post saliva samples were collected before and after the administration of the respective mouth rinse. The microbial count was calculated from the samples. Results. Among the 3 groups chlorhexidine showed better antimicrobial property than crude extract of cinnamomum verum, but crude extract of cinnamon did show a reduction in the microbial count.

Keywords : Cinnamon , Mouthrinse , Antibacterial property , Herbal mouthrinse ,Chlorhexidine
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : N-acetyl cysteine in Acute Liver Failure secondary to Hepatitis B
Authors : Shikha Handa,Jyoti Walia,B.P Kalra

Acute liver failure (ALF) is a clinical syndrome resulting from massive necrosis of hepatocytes or from severe functional impairment of hepatocytes. Leading cause in developing countries is viral hepatitis, autoimmune diseases, where as in developed countries, drugs mainly acetaminophen is the most common cause of acute liver failure. N-Acetyl Cysteine, a glutathione, act as an anti-oxidant, replenishes mitochondrial and glutathione stores. Administration of NAC in children with non-acetaminophen induced acute liver failure, have shown to be associated with better outcome, shortened hospital stay and improved transplant free survival rates. We present a case report on use of N-acetyl cysteine in a 15 year old female with Hepatic Encephalopathy stage IV with Acute Liver failure (fulminant) secondary to hepatitis B virus.

Keywords : Acute liver failure , hepatitis B , N-acetyl Cysteine
Published in : BMR Medicine

Title : Low cost robotic arm trainer for K-12, CIT and IT students
Authors : Luis Santos Mallari

The study aimed to design and build a low-cost robotic arm trainer and learning platform for Senior High School (K-12), Industrial Technology, and Information Technology students of Bulacan State University. The project will help private schools that are catering K-12 program. The survey method of research was used in the study. Comparative market research and survey was also conducted in designing and building the low-cost robotic trainer. The respondents were teachers and instructors of Electronics, Embedded Systems and Information Technology in different private high Schools, Colleges, and Universities. It is a finding that most academic institution has no robotic trainer for their electronics subjects and not ready for the vocational readiness with respect on robotics and automation. The trainer aid students in the various course subjects like Embedded Systems, Capstone, Industrial Electronics, Digital Logic Design, PLC Programming, Basic Automation, Microprocessor Interfacing Techniques, and can even be the platform of Voc-Tech and STEM strands of Senior High School of Department of Education. The factors that constitute the design are its low-cost price, platform adaptation to Outcome-Based Education, ability to learn hardware programming by the students in a not so intricate programming language, adaptation to the open systems of different hardware modules like sensors and actuators, and ability to prepare high school students for robotics engineering course.

Keywords : Microcontroller , Arduino , Actuators , Automation , Atmel , Bootloaders , Embedded Systems , Hardware Interfacing , Programmable Logic Controller , Open Systems Software and Open Systems Hardware
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : The Effects of Advertising Alcohol on Young People
Authors : Joel R. Tomas


Keywords : Television Advertisements
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research
Manuscript Code : Advertisements of alcohol drinking for most parents are worrisome, because of all the problems early inception drinking can cause. The study covers the different types of media used for alcohol advertisements concerning how influential it can be to young viewers. Here, there are indications of effects. Results in the study shows that television advertisement as medium in dispersion of advertising alcohol claims the most dominant form. An advertisement turns to be a source of influencing young people to drink. In the other hand, the respondents find the highest recommendation in the total ban of alcoholic advertisement on films. Statistical computation also finds a significant difference in age (12 – 16) and commonly seen alcoholic advertisements that can influence to young people to become sensible to consume alcoholic drinks. In accumulation of the findings, Television advertisements availability and accessibility at home are contemporary. Awareness is stimulating in young people when it comes to alcoholism. The reassurance of alcoholic advertisement on films encompasses force leading to consumption of alcoholic drinks among the young people. The respondent’s commends the total ban of alcohol ads on films for it won’t give an optimistic output to youth. And the researcher is much concerned by way of tough law implementation about restrictions in alcohol procurement.

Title : Promoting Reliability and Security of the OJT Student Records for the College of Information and Communications Technology through the Development of Online Management System with SMS Notification
Authors : Evelyn C. Samson,Rosalyn P. Reyes,Ivy S. Bernardino,Enrique M. Ravana

The main purpose of this study is to design and develop an Online Management System for the College of Information & Communications Technology OJT Office with SMS Notification. The On-the-Job-Training (OJT) Office in the College of Information & Communications Technology at Bulacan State University manually process and keep the records of every student who are taking up their OJTs. Compiling student documents needs a lot of work and greater space, and maintains them organized and safe. Web-based Management System with SMS Notification gives a solution in managing time, improve working processes, design precise monitoring program, and capability to store a huge data that could generate different reports accurately. This web application features expandability and flexibility by making standard procedures for database back-up and archiving of records and transactions. The website lets every student create an account and access all its features such as announcements, downloadable forms, schedule of visits and forum discussions. Submission of requirements can upload to the website anytime. Information dissemination like important announcements and events could send to the students via Short Message Service (SMS) notification.

Keywords : OJT Student Record , Management System , SMS Notification
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : The Role of a Local College in the Promotion of Health in Local Communities
Authors : Prof. Marwin M. de la Cruz

Colleges are so focused on their mandate as an academic, having in mind that educational institutions are economic catalysts and stimulating multiple business opportunities. On the other hand, educational goals tend to forget that there is one which should also be given attention to, that is, the health of the community. To address this seemingly differing idea, the methodology that can be employed as Zappia, and L. Puntenney, (2010) puts it, the establishment of specific training to individual groups, in areas such as leadership development, engaging hard-to-reach residents, and launching small community improvement efforts.In this way, ensuring resident involvement in the planning makes the difference. At the Bulacan State University, partnership is created by calling together a group of interested stakeholder to discuss ideas and concerns for the community. The formation of this affiliation and association addresses social determinants of health within the community and cohesive relationships between them.

Keywords : Community engagement , educational Institution , Bulacan State University , Health , Community
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Local government of Calumpit: Assessment of an LGU performance culture
Authors : Marwin M. Dela Cruz

The Local Government Code of the Philippines, in broad-spectrum, promotes the organization of a responsible, efficient, and vibrant governmental structure and operating means that will meet the priority needs and service requirements of every LGUs. The Code also declares the state’s policy of giving the local government units a genuine and meaningful local autonomy. It is, therefore, imperative for LGUs to exercise good governance to ensure the efficient and effective performance of these responsibilities, and to improve the funding assistance to both national and local promote development. The necessities of evaluating such performance are crucial so that the said services be continuous and achieve the needed development. In this way, performance culture of an LGU is enhanced. Thus, in the case of the Municipality of Calumpit, the rule of the thumb is to maximize decentralization to deliver the services needed by the citizenry and measure its performance.

Keywords : Local Government , Decentralization , Calumpit , LGU Performance Culture , Philippines
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : An Analysis of the Impact of the Computer Literacy Program of the BulSU-College of Science on Panasahan Elementary School’s Teachers
Authors : Yolanda C. Roberto

The study aimed to find out the impact of the computer literacy programs of the BulSU - College of Science on Panasahan Elementary School’s Teachers and to improve similar future programs. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire to gather relevant information with 24 teachers who are recipients of the computer literacy program as respondents. The levels of knowledge and skills of the respondents on the topics included in the programs prior to and after participation were determined. The level of agreement of the respondents on statements regarding the computer literacy programs conducted as well as the chances of using the skills developed by the respondents from the computer literacy programs were also determined in this study. The paired samples t-test was used to determine the statistical difference between the mean levels of knowledge and skills of the respondents on the topics included prior to and after participating in the program. The mean was also used to summarize other data gathered. The results showed that the computer literacy programs of the BulSU - College of Science have improved the knowledge and skills of Panasahan Elementary School’s Teachers. This brought a remarkable impact to the teachers since the knowledge and skills they learned are useful in performing their work as teachers.

Keywords : : Society , Computer Literacy Program , Impact Analysis , Paired Samples t-test , Discriptive Survey
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : The chemistry teacher's communication behaviour in relation to student's attitude and performance
Authors : Maricel E. Sierto,Ricky J. Navarro,Alberto P. Valenzuela


Keywords : Communication behavior , attitude , performance
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research
Manuscript Code : controlling? (2) What is the level of the attitude of students toward Chemistry? (3) What is the level of performance of students in Chemistry subject both in lecture and laboratory? (4) Is there a significant relationship between teachers’ communication behavior and students’ attitude toward Chemistry? And, (5) Is there a significant relationship between teachers’ communication behavior and students’ performance in Chemistry? The expressive quantitative and qualitative methods of research were developed. The population of the study consists of 185 students who were arbitrarily selected from different courses in Bulacan State University, Bustos Campus. The following conclusions were developed: (1) Chemistry teachers garnered very satisfactory ratings in the aspects of challenging communication behavior, encouraging and praising category of communication behavior, non-verbal supporting category of communication behavior, understanding communication behavior, and controlling communication behavior as perceived by their students. (2) The majority of the students have very satisfactory attitudes toward Chemistry. (3) Majority of the students obtained an average rating in their Chemistry grades in lecture and laboratory, and (4) There was no significant relationship between challenging communication behavior of teachers and attitude of the students, encouraging and praising communication behavior of educators and attitude of students, controlling communication behavior of instructors and attitude of students, challenging communication behavior of teachers and Chemistry performance of students, understanding communication behavior of schoolteachers and Chemistry performance of students, and controlling communication behavior of teachers and Chemistry performance. However, there was the significant relationship between non-verbal supporting communication of lecturers and attitudes of students, and understanding communication behavior of teachers and attitudes of students.

Title : Body Mass Index of Endurance Athletes of the Bulacan State University: Basis for a Sports and Nutrition Program
Authors : Anna Dominique M. Tallara

The purpose of this study is to determine the body mass index and problems encountered of selected endurance athletes of Bulacan State University during training and event proper that will be a basis of sports and nutrition program. The major instrument that was utilized in this is study consisted of survey questionnaire tool. The instrument has 3 parts. Part 1 is the demographic profile of the athletes of Bulacan State University which includes age, gender, living arrangement, and sports. Part 2 represents the level of nutritional status of the athletes in terms of BMI. Part 3 is the problems encountered by the respondents during training and competition. The research concluded that most respondents have normal body mass index. The athletes’ most encountered problem during the regular training is weight management while eating disorder and lack of motivation are their least concern. Lack of sleep is the major concern or of the athletes during the rigid training while eating disorder, lack of motivation, weight management and lack of supporters are their least concern. Majority of the respondents concern is injury during competition. While time of meals and fluid intake during competition is their least concern.

Keywords : Athlete , body mass index , endurance
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : Relative Value of Hard Skills and Soft Skills for Hiring Employees in Manufacturing Sector
Authors : Erus Angelo A. Lumague

The Hiring process is a crucial part of a company’s success. Thus, it is imperative that companies must have an active strategy order to have an effective hiring process. An Hr manager is one of the vital people that are needed to establish an effective hiring process. Thus, the primary purpose of this study is to help improve the selection process specifically by means of understanding the relative value of hard and soft skills. The understanding of the relative value will support improve the selection process because companies will have an in-depth understanding of the needs of their corporation regarding employee skills. The study will help companies improve recruiting process it will also benefit future researcher to establish the similar study to be conducted on other business sectors other than manufacturing sector. It is revealed in the research that the relative value of hard and soft skills is almost similar. On the contrary, it also shows that the effects are much inclined on the importance of hard skills. Finally recommendations that are endorsed are

Keywords : Hard Skills , Soft Skills , Relative value , manufacturing sector , evaluation process , selection process
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies
Manuscript Code : Give priority in understanding the relative value of hard and soft skills. HR managers should better understand the relative value of hard and soft skills. Conduct a further study on the benefits of understanding the relative value of hard and soft skill. Revisit the hiring process to align the perception in the significant difference in hard and soft skills and the relative value. Conduct a further study on the need of the company regarding skills. Similar studies may be regulated in other business sectors to further validate the results of the study.

Title : Development of motorcycle jacket with modified indicator and brake lights
Authors : Allen N. Maroma

The study dealt with the development of a motorcycle indicator and brake light system that is integrated into a standard rider’s jacket. The device was conceived for the purpose of increasing the visibility of the rider especially during night time. The system was developed in such a way that minimal modifications can be made to the lighting system of standard motorcycles in order to incorporate the device. The device was also fabricated by using materials that are readily available in the mainstream electronics market for ease of maintenance. The safety garment was designed so as to easily detach the electronic system integrated for the purpose of laundering. The system can be powered by standard twelve volt battery of motorcycles, it has to be connected to the brake light and turn indicator. The integration or wiring of the system can be performed by any motorcycle mechanic or personnel in any motorcycle accessories shop with minimal instructions.

Keywords : Indicators , Motorcycle , Brake lights , Safety
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : Web-based Sanitary Permit Module: A Government-Academe Project Plan
Authors : Jaime P. Pulumbarit

A sanitary permit is issued by the local health authority for an establishment to operate, be it food or not food establishment. With the responsibility of ensuring safety, the development of a Web-based Sanitary Permit Module helps the Sanitation Division of the City Government of Malolos, Bulacan in the processing of sanitary permit to establishments (food or not food) applying or holds existing business permit. The Sanitary Permit Module logs the history of visits of the sanitary inspector and records the behavior of an establishment, including sanitary violations. Gathered sanitary data was identified, and then presented to the City Health Office for validation and approval. The sanitation permit documents apply the necessary regulations from the Local Government Unit of the Sanitation Division focuses on the range of the needs of automating the issuance of sanitary permit to an establishment and covers the following processes such as revoking permit, monitoring sanitation and other processes under the City Health Office of the Local Government Unit of Malolos, Bulacan. The project, however, does not cover the issuance of requirements regarding the requisition of sanitation permit, health certificate and sanitation request form. Thus, the Sanitary Division received sanitary requests from the business permits section.

Keywords : : Sanitary Permit Logs , Sanitary Inspection , Automation Permit , Local Government Unit , Health Office
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : In Focus: College of Education Graduates Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) Performance
Authors : Emelita Laganao

while only the Physical Science majors passed in the professional education (Prof. Ed.)

Keywords : General education subjects , professional education subjects , major courses.
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research
Manuscript Code : and for the major courses Mathematics, Biological Science, and English majors performed the 75% and higher scores. Possible interventions were suggested to further improve the LET preparation and performance of the students and graduates.

Title : Hydraulic brake and clutch bleeder
Authors : Eduardo C. Santos,Nemencio Cabrera

The study aimed to construct a device that will be helpful for every automotive mechanic in terms of bleeding automobiles brakes and clutch system. The Hydraulic Brake and Clutch Bleeder was fabricated from locally available materials making it more cost effective. The device is operated by one person that simplifies the task of bleeding the system, and with less chance for the wear and tear of parts that may occur during the process. The device is users friendly with fewer operation procedures. The Hydraulic Brake and Clutch Bleeder was evaluated by the experts and automotive technician from the various automotive shop and also persons who have knowledge about automobile. It was evaluated based on three (3) criteria such as functionality, efficiency and effectiveness, and safety. The Hydraulic Brake and Clutch Bleeder was rated by 30 respondents from the academe and industry. It gained an overall rating 4.55 which means that the device is highly acceptable.

Keywords : Hydraulic , brakes , clutch , bleeder
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Digitized Measuring Wheel for computing signal losses due to cable length
Authors : Bernardo A. Pangilinan

The device solves the problem of determining the location of amplifiers in a cable television network and a telephone network. The device has a wheel with sensor attach to it to send pulses to the microcontroller equivalent to a certain distance traveled by the wheel. The microcontroller also accepts the attenuation factor per unit length available in the coaxial cable specification to be multiplied by the distance covered by the wheel and result in accumulated attenuation or losses produced by the cable at that length this were all done through the microcontroller. Another important parameter which can be input through the keypad towards the microcontroller is the threshold value of attenuation wherein the signal is no longer usable and needs amplification this will create an audible alarm that identify the location of the amplifier. This device will be beneficial in planning of distribution design for cable television using coaxial cable. This is also use for estimating accumulated losses due to cable length for telephone network which still uses coax and data network that uses copper.

Keywords : Microcontroller , Coaxial Cable , attenuation , threshold value , distribution design.
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : Solar powered street light for Sapang Patay
Authors : Dexter S. Faustino

An imperative piece of equipment that is vital to a community is a Street Light. It will provide illumination and safety for the people of the community. However, most of the street lights are powered by the local electric company and are somehow not possible for remote locations. The Solar powered street light is an agreeable solution for the problem. The primary concern of the project is to design and construct a solar- powered street lamp that will be used in Sapang Patay, San Isidro II, Paombong, Bulacan, a remote location of mostly fishponds. The project aims to illuminate the streets of Sapang Patay through the installation of solar powered street light and provide its residents a sense of being safe throughout the night. An experiment and constant monitoring was conducted to check if the solar panel is charging. The result of the project has a positive response from the community of Sapang Patay. They now enjoy the street light and can now freely walk at night without any worries. The solar powered street lamp is a self- sustaining device. The device provides a reliable and enhanced alternative to a current street lighting system.

Keywords : Solar Powered , Solar Panel , Street Light , Illumination , Charging
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Barangay Office Management System
Authors : Jaime P. Pulumbarit,Jane Kristine G. Suarez

A Barangay is considered as the smallest unit of the government in the Philippines. It performs the initial operations such as formation and employing of programs, activities, policies and other that involved the community. As the Philippines, population increases, the number of households in each barangay in the country increases. As a result, more and more people are seeking the service of the barangay council as the unit of local government close to people. An increasing number of people mean increasing works for the barangay council members and staff. Today, population continually upgrades those results into a growing number of labor especially the Barangay Secretary, Barangay Treasurer, and Barangay Clerk. Summarizing the procedures in different barangay such as Barangay Tikay, Barangay Dakila, and Barangay Mojon in Malolos City, and Barangay Sta. Monica in Hagonoy, Barangay Panducot in Calumpit and Barangay Malhacan in Meycauayan requiring immediate response to this scenario a possible solution is an efficient and effective Management Information System. The development of a Barangay Office Management System enables the user to manage and print barangay citizen’s request and financial records and reports such as: Payroll for honoraria and allowance, Disbursement voucher, Account’s Advice, Purchase orders, Purchase Receipt, Reimbursement Expense Receipt, Inspection Report, Acceptance Report, Liquidation Report, Accomplishment Report, Requisition and Issue Slip, Summary of Cash Payments, Summary of Checks Issued, Summary of Paid Petty Cash Vouchers, Summary of Collections, Budget Information, Census, Barangay Cases, Barangay Certificates, Barangay Clearance, Barangay Indigency, Barangay Bonifide, Barangay Recommendation, Barangay Permits, Occupancy Permit, Building Permit, Business Permit, Billboard/Tarpaulin Permit and Excavation Permit. Regarding the development tools needed the researchers utilized PyDev Eclipse Version 2.2.4 for the Programming Language and MS SQL 2008 for the database.

Keywords : Barangay , Local Government , Office Management , Secretary , Treasurer
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : Community Resilience to Climate-related Disasters in Bulakan, Bulacan: Implications for Disaster Management Service Provision
Authors : Ericson H. Peñalba

The vulnerability of rural and coastal communities to extreme climate change impacts poses serious concerns about the ability of people to build resilience. Using an ecological approach in understanding how community resilience is situated within multiple settings, this qualitative study examines the lay accounts of 30 residents and authorities who experienced three major natural disasters. A thematic network analysis of the interview responses surface six dominant organizing themes: sense of preparedness, sense of togetherness, effective leadership of local authorities, service provision at the macro level, rebuilding in a self-reliant manner, and preparedness for future disasters. The dominant themes are considered relevant in sustaining the capacity of the participants to respond to, cope with, and recover from adversity. The findings reveal that collective actions, which are further strengthened by the presence of care, support, and assistance emerging from every system level, support community resilience. Hence, disaster management interventions necessitate increased efforts for the implementation of awareness and sensitization campaigns, additional social welfare services, and information dissemination activities through the use of published communication materials.

Keywords : Community resilience , natural disasters , disaster management , thematic network analysis
Published in : The International Journal of Earth & Environmental Sciences

Title : Modified Heat and temperature Concept Evaluation of BS Architecture students of Bulacan State University
Authors : Freya Gay A. Jingco

Alternative concepts must be expressed by the students for us

Keywords : Alternative concepts , common conceptions , heat and temperature
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research
Manuscript Code : teachers would know then and look some ways to help address this problem. The study aimed to explore students’ conceptual understanding of heat and temperature. It attempts to answer the level of the common conception of the 2nd year BS Architecture students of Bulacan State University and their existing alternative conceptions on heat and temperature. Descriptive survey method was used in this research to probe the common conceptual understanding of students. Data gathered were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively based on students’ answers derived from the 20-item modified HTCE, which is a free response and multiple choice exam. The researcher concentrated in investigating the common conceptions of the students’ written responses to the test. The respondents were purposively chosen by the researcher during the 1st semester of the school year 2016-2017 which utilized five integral sections of BS Architecture students of Bulacan State University and are currently taking their Mechanics and Heat (Physics 212) course. Results revealed that students have their prevailing alternative conceptions and beliefs that are embedded in their minds as shown in their responses.

Title : In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis of Berberis aristata
Authors : Zakir Hussain Malik,Kirti Jain,K. C. Ravindran,G. Sathiyaraj

Berberis aristata (Berberidaceae) is an important medicinal plant and found in the different region of the world. It has significant medicinal value in the traditional Indian and Chinese system of medicine. The aim of the present investigation was undertaken to find out the phytochemical presence and Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and alcholic extract of Berberis aristata. Present study includes determination of phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial study and estimation of total flavonoid content. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, alkaloid and flavonoid. Total flavonoid content was found to be 0.98%. Antimicrobial activity shows good positive result with gram positive bacteria. According to observed result it can be said that the concentration of 50µg/ml of plant extracts is the maximum inhibitory concentration.

Keywords : Antimicrobial , Berberis aristata , aqueous and alcoholic , phytochemical
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : MRSA nasal carriage among children attending pediatric hospital in Madagascar
Authors : Tsiry Rasamiravaka,Andry Maharo Andrianarivelo,Tojoniaina Herinjaka Andriamandimbisoa,Andry Rasamindrakotroka

OR 11.46, 95% CI 3.448 to 38.11

Keywords : Children , Hospital , Madagascar , MRSA , Nasal carriage
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine
Manuscript Code : P = 0.002, respectively). Among MRSA nasal isolates, a high rate of multidrug resistance and particularly a resistance to Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (81.25%) and Amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (70.13%) were observed. These results suggest that MRSA is fully established in Malagasy community which requires urgent strategic policy in order to slow down the spread of these strains.

Title : Status epilepticus in a child with leukodystrophy
Authors : Rupali P Shirke,Manju Saini,Shikha Handa

Leukodystrophies are white matter disorders that are genetic in nature. In the young, they represent an important cause of progressive neurological disability. They are frequently diagnosed on MRI, but their identification remains a challenge. Their diagnosis is important for palliative and experimental treatment, as well as family screening.We report a case of 14 yr old male child who presented to us with fever and status epilepticus.MRI revealed leukodystrophy.Patient’s family opted for palliative and home based care once the natural history and prognosis was explained to them.At the time of dicharge patients seizures were controlled with phenytoin,phenobarbitone, sodium valproate and midazolam.

Keywords : Leukodystrophy
Published in : BMR Medicine

Title : A study on necrotizing fasciitis and other wound infections
Authors : Purimitla Usharani,Payala Vijayalakshmi

Purpose A wound is commonly infected because there is loss of integrity of skin. Infected wound delays wound healing due to the lack of defense mechanism, blood supply and lack of oxygen. The present study was focused on the incidence of various pathogens in different types of wound infections and the variations in their antibiotic susceptibility have been analyzed. Methods A total of 50 samples were collected randomly from wound infected areas like cellulitis, diabetic foot lesions, post-operative wound infections, early stages of necrotizing fasciitis, burn wounds etc. The samples were analyzed by various microbiological techniques like microscopy, culture methods and Biochemical methods. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates was tested by using Kirby Bauer’s disc diffusion method. Results Out of 50 cases, 35 were males and 15 were a female which shows the male preponderance. Wound infection showed a high incidence in the age group of 41-60 which is followed by 21-40. The most predominant bacteria in positive samples are Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 44% which is followed by Staphylococcus aureus 26%, Klebsiella pneumoniae 16%, Proteus mirabilis 8% and Escherichia coli 6%. Nearly 21 major strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly sensitive to Amikacin (95.4%) and 15 strains were sensitive to Amoxycillin/clavulanate (68.1%). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from two cases of necrotizing fasciitis and the fungi Aspergillus niger was isolated from one burn wound infection. Conclusion The most common organisms isolated were Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Staphylococcus aureus which showed sensitivity to Amikacin. The percentage of resistance was high among Penicillin, Cephalexin, Ampicillin, Tetracycline and Erythromycin.

Keywords : Wound infection , Microorganisms , Microbiological analysis , sensitivity , resistance
Published in : BMR Microbiology

Title : Antioxidant Activity of Croton Penduliflorus (Hutch) Leaf Extract and Fractions
Authors : Ejiro Esada,Solomon Ameniyegba Ndoni,Idowu Julius Olawuni,Efere Martins Obuotor


Keywords : Croton penduliflorus
Published in : BMR Phytomedicine
Manuscript Code : Croton spp. has been used medicinally in the treatment of a variety of ailments, which include cancer, constipation, and diabetes. Various parts of the plant are used in Nigeria as antimicrobial, arbortifacient, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic agents. Dried leaves of Croton penduliflorus (Hutch) was powdered, extracted and concentrated, and the aqueous fraction partitioned into dichloromethane, ethylacetate and n-butanol. The following parametes were determined, ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity, Free Radical Antioxidant Power, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents. The aqueous and dichloromethane fractions gave the highest yields, and the crude extracts exhibited a high amount of total phenol and total flavonoids. The crude extract and dichloromethane fractions showed a high scavenging activity for ABTS and DPPH, while the crude extract and its fractions demonstrate significant radical scavenging ability and antioxidant capacity which were due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids.

Title : To Assess and Compare Plasma Fibrinogen and Fibrin Degradation Product Level in Preeclamptic and Normotensive Patients
Authors : Bimala Choudhary,Lata Rajoria,Manju Sharma,Seema Mehta

Objective : To assess and compare plasma fibrinogen and fibrin degradation product level in preeclamptic and normotensive patients. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional study carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SMS Medical College and associated Hospitals, Jaipur (Rajasthan) from April 2014 to March 2016 for a period of 2 year. The study population included 25 women with preeclampsia (cases) and 25 normotensive pregnant women (controls) in their third trimester. Cases were further grouped into mild preeclampsia (n=18), severe preeclampsia (n=4) and eclampsia (3) according to severity of preeclampsia. Plasma fibrinogen and FDP levels were estimated. Results of both groups were compared to evaluate the association of plasma fibrinogen and FDP with preeelampsia and its severity. Results: The mean plasma fibrinogen level was 528.96 ± 93.25 mg/dl in preeclamptics as compared to control 365.48 ± 109.85 mg/dl, which was statistically significant (p=0.001). The mean values of plasma FDP in cases and controls were respectively 8.52±12.50 and 5.72±1.96 µg/ml (p = 0.000). Elevation in fibrinogen and FDP levels were more for severe preeclampsia and eclampsia group than mild preeclampsia group. Conclusion : Preeclampsia is associated with high fibrinogen and FDP levels as compared to normal pregnancies. The levels of plasma fibrinogen and FDP increase as does the severity of preeclampsia.

Keywords : Preeclampsia , Fibrinogen , Fibrin degradation product
Published in : BMR Medicine

Title : Four complications of pregnancy affecting the placental villi
Authors : Olivar C Castejón S,Ángela López G

Preeclampsia severe, megaloblastic macrocitic anemia, infection by zika virus and marginal insertion of umbilical cord affected to patient of 26 years old who showed fetal death to 22 weeks of pregnancy. Light microscopy was applied to the study of her placenta. Stem villi were observed with syncytial hyperplasia, congested vessels, dilated regions in their trajectory, changes in the thickness of the syncytium or interruptions, scanty development of muscular layer in stromal vessels, immature intermediate villi with aneurysms, mature intermediate villi with scarcity of terminal villi, terminal villi with interrupted syncytium and bad development of ramifications of the placental villi which impede the normal interchange of gases or nutrients. These complications of the pregnancy have provoked severe degenerative changes in the placental villous tree that affected the immature and mature intermediate villi with scarcity of terminal villi which have contributed with the death early of the fetus

Keywords : Preeclampsia. Macrocitic anemia. Zika virus. Marginal insertion
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Effects of 1:1 mixture of 8-hydroxyquinolene and alphabromonapthalene chemicals on meiosis in gyandropsis gyandra Linn. (Cappridaceae)
Authors : Egbucha Kelechukwu Chris,Micheal Nduche U.

Investigations of the effects of 1:1 mixture of 8-hydroxyquinolene and saturated solution of Alpha-bromonapthalene on the meiotic process in Gyandropsis gyandra Linn. was carried out with an aim of exploring the nature of any mutagenic impart of the chemicals on normal meiosis in this plant. The combined mixture of 1:1 8-hydroxyquinolene and alphabromonapthalene affected first and second meiotic divisions significantly, causing chromosome stickiness (32.74%) at pachytene and anaphase-1. The mixture also disorganized the Metaphase-1 chromosomes causing bivalents to agglutinate into small groups leading to formation of ring bivalents (6.06%). Generally, chromosomes staining, configuration and separations were found to be greatly affected by the mixture. Heavily clumped bivalents characterized anaphase-1 separations in most pollen mother cells. This appeared like highly condensed chromosome masses with stretches of chromatid segments forming bridges which eventually culminated in a reasonably high level of restitution (18.32%). Most pollen mother cells obviously could not go through to second division.

Keywords : Meiosis , restitution , chiasmata , 8-hydroxyquinolene , alpha-bromonapthalene , Gyandropsis gyandra
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Avulsion Fracture of the Calcaneal Tuberosity: Report of two cases with literature review
Authors : Tarik Elyacoubi,Jalal Mekkaoui,Abdellatif El bahraoui,salim Bouabid,Mustapha Boussouga

the treatment approach is of interest in this rare injury and the operative management is based on a review of the literature.

Keywords : avulsion fracture , calcaneal tuberosity , treatment
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research
Manuscript Code : Non operative treatment is classically associated with bad results. Hence the surgical intervention is generally the treatment of choice. The authors report two cases of unusual avulsion fractures of the calcaneal tuberosity treated by open reduction and internal fixation with a good functional result.

Title : Determinants of Organizational Commitment among the Faculty Members of Private Tertiary Institutions
Authors : Dolores T. Qiambao,Alvin V. Nuqui

This study aimed to determine the predictors of organizational commitment of the college teachers in selected schools in Pampanga. The predictors of organizational commitment were classified into personal factor, professional factor and job factors. The personal factors consisted of the age, gender and civil status, while the professional factors were categorized into educational attainment, length of teaching in the current school and length of teaching in other school(s), and the job factors comprised of salary, benefits, incentives and job satisfaction. A sample of eighty nine (89) teachers from nine (9) colleges and universities in Pampanga were used as the respondents of the study. Inferential statistics such as Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient was employed to test the hypotheses of the study. Findings showed that the personal factors namely

Keywords : faculty members , commitment
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research
Manuscript Code : age, civil status and gender do not significantly affect organizational commitment. Further, the professional factors as being categorized as the length of teaching service and salary were not correlated either to organizational commitment. It was revealed that only educational attainment, incentives and job satisfaction significantly affect the commitment of the teachers.

Title : Biochemical Studies of Alcohol Induced Liver Injury
Authors : Chanchal Chawla,Upma Agarwal, Ritu Sharma,D.K. Kansal

Liver damage is one of the most common consequences of alcohol abuse but despite of an enormous amount of research efforts, the mechanism by which alcohol causes alcoholic liver diseases remains unknown. Evidence that association is independent of both alcohol consumption and changes in other liver function tests suggest that possible mechanisms beyond alcohol neurotoxicity and hepatic dysfunction deserve further investigation (Michael 1989) The present study was envisioned to carry out Biochemical studies of alcohol induced liver injury in the alcoholic patient with following aims and objects. i. To determine the effect of alcohol on liver function ii. To know effect of alcohol on lipid profile. iii. To know the quantity, quality and duration of alcohol intake in relation to liver damage and change in lipid metabolism. iv. To observe the effect of diet in liver damage in alcoholic.

Keywords : Alcohol , Liver Injury
Published in : BMR Medicine

Title : Phenotype frequencies of Rh and Kell Blood Group Systems in Blood Transfusion department of Avicenna Military Hospital, Marrakech, Morocco
Authors : Hafid Zahid,Anass Yahyaoui,Jean Uwingabiye,Abdelhak El Khazraji,Fayçal Labrini,Rachid Hadef,Nezha Messaoudi

Introduction The purpose of our study is presenting new national statistics of phenotypic prevalence Rhesus systems (Rh) and Kell using a new sample of blood donors. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in the blood transfusion department of the Avicenna military hospital of Marrakech on a sample of 1286 donors collected between 01/01/2015 and 31/12/2015. This is a military population dominated by men (99%), and composed of young people aged from 18 to 45 years. The samples have been collected in EDTA tubes. The tests were performed on gel-card or on opaline plate at the laboratory temperature. Reagents used are monoclonal antibodies from Society Bio-Rad. Results Our results shows a clear predominance of the Rh1 (D) positive (89.81%) compared to Rh-1 (d) negative (10.19%). CcDee was the most common phenotype (38.95%) followed by ccDee (18.91%) CCDee, ccDEe, ccdee and CcDEe. The ccDEE, CCDEe and ccdEe phenotypes are the minority phenotypes. For the Kell system, the predominance of Kell-1 subjects was clearly observed at a frequency of 93%. The Rh D allele was the most prevalent (68.08%) among RH blood type alleles while and the Kell-1 (96.44%) was the frequent among the alleles of Kell blood group system.Discussion and Conclusion our results compared to previous national and international studies show that Morocco is in an intermediate situation among the Caucasoid and negroids populations.

Keywords : Phenotype , Rhesus typing , Kell system , Blood Donors , Morocco
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Anterior dislocation of shoulder with Ipsilateral fractures of the proximal, mid-shaft and distal humerus: rare complex injury (case report)
Authors : Tarik El Yacoubi,Jalal Mekkaoui,Abdellatif Bahraoui,Ssalim Bouabid,Mustapha Boussouga

the literature related to this rare injury is limited to few case reports. We present a case of a 43-year-old, who suffered from a job-related accident and sustained fractures of midshaft and distal humerus associated to ipsilateral anterior shoulder dislocation and fracture of greater tuberosity

Keywords : Humerus-fractures
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research
Manuscript Code : after reduction of the anterior shoulder dislocation. The treatment was surgical and demonstrated a successful outcome at one year follow-up.

Authors : S. Jeyakumar,Jagatheesan Alagesan,P. R. Jayashree

Adhesive capsulitis is a condition wherein the shoulder capsule of the glenohumeral joint becomes inflamed and stiff along with adhesion formation. Maitland mobilization and myofascial trigger point release techniques are important interventions in the management Both, Maitland mobilization and myofascial trigger point release are proven to be effective in treatment of adhesive capsulitis in the past. However logical thinking warranted the need to study the effects of prior use of Maitland mobilization of the shoulder joint,which primarily get affected in adhesive capsulitis, followed by myofascial trigger point release of shoulder joint. Thus our study compared the efficacy of treatment strategies to improve the extensibility of Maitland joint mobilization techniques in patients with adhesive capsulitis .

Keywords : Maitland mobilization , Myofascial trigger point release techniques , Adhesive capsulitis , Visual analog scale , shoulder pain and disability index
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Duchenne muscular dystrophy with PUJ obstruction: A case report
Authors : Rupali P Shirke,Shikha Handa,Pramod Sharma,Vipan Chander

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary condition with features of progressive weakness, intellectual impairment, pseudo-hypertrophy of calves with proliferation of connective tissue in muscle. Renal morbidities in the form of recurrent urinary tract infections are seen in these patiets due to prolonged immobility.however pelviureteral junction obstruction is very rarely seen.

Keywords : Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) , PUJ Obstruction
Published in : BMR Medicine

Title : The Protective Effects of Phyllanthus Emblica in Cyclophosphamide Induced Genotoxicity in Mice
Authors : Rudrama Devi K,Keshava Rao K

In the present study the antimutagenic effects of Phyllanthus fruit extract (PFE) has been evaluated against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice. when animals are treated with different doses of phyllanthus fruit extract i.e., 170,340 and 680 mg/kg to mice, the treated group has not showed any significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice at 48 hrs treatment. A single Intra peritoneal of 50mg/kg of cyclophosphamide induced significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice. However after co administration of three doses of PFE extract there was a dose dependent decrease in the % of micronuclei was observed. When animals were administered with Phyllanthus Fruit Extract PFE 170, 340 & 680 mg/kg/bw orally for seven days and on eightieth day CP (50 mg/kg/bw) was given intraperitonially. For each experimental group control, animals were maintained simultaneously. After the administration of the last dose, the animals were killed and air dried metaphase preparations were made and processed for identification of chromosomal aberrations in somatic cells of mice. In animals treated with single dose of CP, an increase was observed when compared with the values of control group. But when animals primed with PFE + CP group, there was a decrease in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in somatic cells of mice. Thus the results clearly indicated the protective role of PFE on cyclophosphamide induced genotoxic damage in somatic cells of mice.

Keywords : Cyclophosphamide , genotoxicity , Phyllanthus emblica
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Ethnomedicinal plants used for dysentery and diarrhoea by tribes in Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : Mastan Valli,O. Aniel Kumar,S. B. Padal

The local people are very much closely associated with nature, and with their ethno biological knowledge about the plants available around them, they can easily avert and cure themselves from several disease complications. The present study deals with the Ethno-medicinal plants used by tribal communities in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. An ethno medicinal survey was carried out the use of medicinal plants in agency region

Keywords : Ethno medicinal plants , dysentery and diarrhea , tribal people , Prakasam district.
Published in : BMR Phytomedicine
Manuscript Code : the information was gathered from tribals using an integrated approach botanical collections, group discussion and interview with questionnaire during 2014-15. Among 40 informants interviewed, 10 were tribal practitioners. A total of 43 taxa belonging to 40 genera and 25 families are documented. In most of case, fresh parts of the plants was used for the prepararation of diarrhea and dysentery.

Title : Ethnomedicinal plants used for Rheumatoid arthritis by tribal people in Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : T. Shyamala,O. Aniel Kumar,S. B. Padal

This study aimed to identify and understand the utilization of medicinal plants for curing Rheumatoid arthritis used by tribes of Visakhapatnam District. A field study was conducted in Visakhapatnam tribal area during different seasons. The study area was found to use 32 plant species of 23 families for rheumatoid arthritis cure. Among the plant parts used, the highest number was observed for the use of roots to cure rheumatoid disorders. Thus researchers should observe ethnomedical information before deciding which kind of screening should be used in the search of drugs for rheumatoid diseases.

Keywords : Ethnomedicinal Plants , Tribal People , Rheumatoid Arthritis , Visakhapatnam District.
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Phytochemical assessment, in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Acacia hockii De Wild.
Authors : Latifou Lagnika,Mounirou Tchatchedre,Abdou Madjid O. Amoussa,Kamal Latoundji,Ambaliou Sanni

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leafy stems of Acacia hockii harvested in Tanguiéta, were examined for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical screening of A. hockii was performed using two complementary methods: tube test and thin layer chromatography method. Antimicrobial activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts were investigated against four Gram Positive and two Gram negative strains bacteria and three species of Aspergillus. The microdilution and agar diffusion methods were used to evaluate antibacterial and antifungal activities respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results showed the presence of Alkaloids, flavonoids, anthracene derivatives, tannins, pigments, triterpenes, saponins and lignans in aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. hockii leafy stems. Coumarins are only present in the ethanolic extract. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts ranged from 0.625 mg/ml to 5 mg/ml. Both extracts showed significant inhibition effect of sporulation with an inhibitory percentage up to 95.88%, while little to moderate inhibition was obtained against the mycelium growth (36.62 to 78.80 %). Antioxidant activity of extracts ranged from 6 to 96 %. The results suggested that Acacia hockii extracts contains antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

Keywords : Acacia hockii , antifungal , antibacterial , antioxidant , phytochemical
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Assessment of Heavy Metals Content and Their Effects on Toxicity of Acmella Uliginosa Sw.
Authors : Latifou Lagnika,Toussaint Sourou Odjougbele,Anatole Laleye,Ambaliou Sanni

The use of medicinal plants has increased in recent decades due to their affordability and especially because of the assumption that natural remedies are safe. Some medicinal plants are used as leafy vegetable. In Bénin, Acmella uliginosa is one of these medicinal plants used as green leafy vegetable. Unfortunately, they are contaminated by environmental and industrial waste such as heavy metals. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Mn and Zn) contents of Acmella uliginosa, harvested in Cotonou (CAU) and Pobè (PAU) and to assess and compare the oral acute toxicity of the two samples. The heavy metals content was assessed by anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry method. The oral acute toxicity of aqueous extracts was evaluated following the guidelines N° 423 of the Organization of Cooperation for Economic Development. The phytochemical study was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. The heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of arsenic, lead, mercury, copper, manganese, and zinc in Cotonou sample while only zinc, manganese and copper are present in sample collected in Pobè. The heavy metals concentrations range from 0.028 ± 0.007 to 0.108 ± 0.052. Cadmium is absent in studied samples. At a dose of 2000mg/kg body weight, no adverse effects were recorded in Pobè sample in contrary to sample collected at Cotonou. The results showed that Acmella uliginosa harvested in Pobé (PAU) does not contained toxic heavy metals while sample from Cotonou (CAU) contained various heavy metals. Aqueous extract of PAU has no toxicity effect in contrary to Cotonou sample. The toxicity of A. ulignosa collected in Cotonou could be due the presence of heavy metals.

Keywords : heavy metals , Acmella uliginosa , acute toxicity
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Title : Outcome of labour monitored by W.H.O. modified partograph and latent phase partograph
Authors : Renu Meena,Mamta Gangwal,Sonal Agarwal,Ramavtar Bairwa,Mohan Meena,Archana Meena

Background: Partograph is a graphical record of maternal and foetal data during progress of labour entered against time on a single paper sheet. Entire labour can be interpretated in a glance on the partograph. Partograph has been shown to be efficacious tool for monitoring labour and identified women in need of an obstetrician intervention. Aims and Objective: The study was aimed to comparing the maternal and fetal outcome along with normal progress of labour in W.H.O. modified partograph and latent phase partograph, to assess the incidence of prolonged labour and neonatal mortality, and determine the incidence of obstetrics intervention. i.e.– augmentation by oxytocin infusion, forceps delivery, lower segment caesarean section. Material and methods: Study sample consisted of 300 primigravidae presented in labour pain, live fetus with vertex, having term singleton pregnancy. Labour of 200 cases were monitored by W.H.O. modified partograph and intervened when labour reaches to action line, whereas labour of 100 cases monitored by latent phase partograph and augmented in latent phase after passing 8 hrs. Maternal and perinatal outcome were analyzed and comparing in both group. Results: The emergency caesarean section rate was reduced in W.H.O. modified partograph as compare to latent phase partograph (8% v/s 12%), thus indicating significant reduction in prolonged labour and foetal distress. Also still birth was less in modified partograph as compare to latent phase 0.5% v/s 2% (P value is >0.05) indicating an improved maternal & neonatal outcome. Conclusion: W.H.O. modified partograph improving labour management, reducing maternal and fetal morbidity/ mortality and also allows timely intervention as compared to previously popular latent phase partograph, thus recommending use of WHO partograph in all maternity units.

Keywords : Partograph , Prolong Labour , Intervention
Published in : BMR Medicine

Title : A statistical study on factors influencing arthritis among working women
Authors : P. R. Jayashree

The purpose of the present study is to explore the factors that influence arthritis among working women. A sample of 200 working women whose age more than 20 years is taken for the study. The data is collected through questionnaire method using 5-point Likert scale. The objective of this paper is also to find the most prominent type of arthritis for different age groups, awareness, cause and medication for arthritis among working women. Exploratory Factor analysis is performed and five important factors that influence arthritis is extracted.The five factors are named as Personal stress, calcium deficiency, obese, hereditary and age.

Keywords : Factor analysis , chi-square test , types of arthritis , working women
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : To Study The Ethanomedicinal servey of Selected family
Authors : Anjali Ajay Sangole

An ethano botanical study of differant family. The plant is used for the study for ethanomedicinal perpose. The ethnomedicinal data of 20 plants of different family were collected from akola District .These plant part or whole plant is used by peoples as medicinal use. All these plant is used traditional medicinal system of medicine such as ayurveda, The aim of my present research was recorded the indigenous knowledge about part of plant and whole plant is used as medicinal purposes and people should know the Botanical names, common names, and its uses of selected family.

Keywords : Ethnomedicine , Medicinal plants , Indigenous knowledge , Akola District
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Spatial-Temporal variation of benthic-community in Gopalpur coastal sediment, East coast of India
Authors : Satyabrata Das Sharma,Lakshman Nayak,Upananda Mohanty,Mitali Priyadarsini Pati

The study on the macrobenthos of Gopalpur coast, Odisha, East coast of India was undertaken during January 2015 to December 2015. The environmental parameters, sediment characteristics and macrobenthic organisms were collected from 3 stations. The physico-chemical parameters with relation to benthic community structure were studied. The salinity and sediment texture were the most important parameter at Gopalpur coast controlled the distribution and community structure of benthos. The annual rainfall at Gopalpur varied from 001.4-230.7mm. The temperature, salinity, DO, BOD showed spatio-temporal variation. The air and water temperature of Gopalpur coast varied from 26 to 34.20C and 27.5 to 30.20C respectively. The pH of Gopalpur coast varied from 7.2 to 8.3. The percentage composition of sand, silt and clay were in a range of 81.71 to 98.83%, 1.04 to 12.22%, 0.13 to 6.07% respectively. The salinity of Gopalpur coast varied from 5.3 to 31.7 PSU. The concentration of dissolved oxygen varied from 5.4 to 7.2 ml/l. The Bio-chemical oxygen demand ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 ml/l. The diversity of macro benthos of Gopalpur coast varied from 3 to 7 groups belonging to 5 phyla and the population density varied from 550 to 1400 ind./m2 at different stations. In total 8 groups were recorded namely nematodes, polychaetes, decapods, gastropods, bivalves, amphipods, isopods and echinoderms. 30 species were observed under 4 groups, out of which 8 species belongs to decapods, 10 species belongs to gastropods, 11 species belongs to bivalves and only 1 species belongs to echinoderms. Benthic faunal assemblages showed almost similar pattern of distribution at station-I and II (exclusive marine), dominated by nematodes. The station-III (brackish water) was quite different from the station-I and II with different environment and environmental parameters and dominated by polychaetes. In overall observation at 3 stations of Gopalpur coast nematodes dominated in abundance with 9.43-81.82% followed by polychaetes (4.55-51.79%), decapods (0-23.81%), gastropods (0-16.98%), bivalves (0-13.11%), amphipods (0-12.50%) isopods (0-11.32%), and asteroids (0-3.33%). The main objective of the research is to provide a data base and information regarding benthic community structure and to assess the pollution load as it is one of the famous tourist spot of East coast of India.

Keywords : Benthic-community , Population , Environmental variables , Gopalpur Coast , East coast of India
Published in : The International Journal of Earth & Environmental Sciences

Title : Butea monosperma roxb. ex Willd Associated with Endophytic Fungal
Authors : Madhu Prakash Srivastava

Endophytic fungi are one of the most unexplored and diverse group of organisms that make symbiotic associations with higher life forms and are said to produce beneficial metabolites for host. So for only few plants have been screened for their endophyte biodiversity. Butea monosperma Roxb. ex willd. known as ‚Flame of forest‛ possess medicinal properties. A total of 200 segments from 20 different plant parts were screened for their endophytic mycoflora. Twenty one fungal species of Aspergillus (11%), Alternaria (9%), Chaetomiun (13%), Colletotrichium (8%), Fusarium (12%), Mucor (12%), Micrococus (10%), Penicillium (12%), Rhizopus (9%) and Verticillium (5%) were isolated. In this study the most dominant endophytic flora was found to be Chaetomium globosum (13%).

Keywords : Biodiversity , Endophytic fungi , Butea monosperma , Chetomium globosum , Medicinal plant
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : A Study of Meticillin Resistant Pattern on Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Tertiary Care Hospitals of Pokhara
Authors : Suresh Jaiswal,Anching Thapa,Gaurab Mali,Sabina Magar,Sanjaya Gurung,Sweekriti Shakya,Bishnu Raj Tiwari

Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become one of the well-known etiologic agents for a wide variety of infections in both hospital and community settings. It is also a growing threat to the immunocompromised as well as to the general public. A total of 98 S. aureus isolates from 450 different human clinical specimens comprising pus, nasal swab, blood, urine and sputum were obtained at two tertiary care hospitals of Pokhara

Keywords : MRSA , Antimicrobial Susceptibility , Meticillin , Cefoxitin , Oxacillin , Vancomycin
Published in : BMR Microbiology
Manuscript Code : Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Western Regional Hospital (WRH). Those isolates were then screened for meticillin resistance by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique following aseptic procedures in Microbiology laboratory, WRH. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Meticillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and Meticillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were studied by using antibiotic discs like cefoxitin (30mcg), oxacillin (1mcg), vancomycin (30mcg) and gentamicin (10mcg). 72.4% of the isolates were found to be MRSA while 27.6% were MSSA. Among them, very high resistance levels (87.8%) and (74.5%) were detected against oxacillin and cefoxitin while gentamicin and vancomycin recorded the least resistance levels i.e (25.5%) and (5.1%) respectively. High percentage of meticillin resistant isolates and occurence of vancomycin resistance among them which may refer to irrational use of antimicrobial agent, thus, necessitate implementation of good strategies for control of infection and use of antibiotics. Outcome of this study emphasizes the need for constant monitoring on the prevalence of MRSA and to help clinicians/doctors in the effective management and treatment of infections caused by S.aureus

Title : Cysticercal Encephalitis- Starry Sky Appearence: A Case Report
Authors : Rupali Shirke,Shikha Handa,Manju Saini

Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by the infestation with the larval stage of parasite - Tenia Solium via feaco-oral route as mode of transmission. Neurocysticercosis is the CNS manifestation, commonly presents with focal seizures. MRI is the diagnostic study, providing most information about cyst location, viability and associated inflammation. Here we present a case of cysticercal Encephalitis with starry sky appearance seen on MRI.

Keywords : Cysticercosis , parasite
Published in : BMR Medicine

Title : A Survey of Traditional Medicinal Uses of Catha Edulis (Celastraceae) in Meru and Embu Counties of Kenya
Authors : Josphat K. Kiunga,Catherine W. Lukhoba, Saifuddin F. Dossaji,Abiy Yenesew

Catha edulis (qat) is an evergreen tree or shrub whose young leaves and stems are widely chewed in Eastern Africa. The aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal value of Catha edulis as used traditionally by the Ameru and Aembu communities of Kenya. The study was conducted between the months of September (2014) and February (2015), and involved 42 key informants (32 males and 10 females) aged between 45 and 84 years. Snowball and purposeful sampling techniques were used in the selection of key respondents. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to collect ethnomedicinal data using faceto-face interviews and discussions with key respondents. Eleven traditional varieties based on information from key informants were identified and described. Out of these, 5 were from Embu County while 6 were from Meru County. Plant samples were collected and deposited at the University of Nairobi herbarium as voucher specimens. A total of 13 ethnomedicinal uses of qat were documented. Of these, 62% were reported only in Meru County while 15% were reported only in Embu County. The remaining (23%) were reported in both Meru and Embu counties. The major parts of the plant reported to have medicinal value were leaves. Young stems and roots had scanty medicinal value. Chewing fresh material was identified as the major method of crude drug preparation, although in some cases such as in the treatment of diarrhea, gonorrhea and toothache, boiling of fresh material was reported. The main mode of administration of drug is oral and there was no precise dosage reported for any given ailment. The present study indicates that there is a rich knowledge of ethnomedicinal uses of qat particularly in Meru which forms groundwork for further efficacious study of the plant as that may provide a lead to the discovery of novel bioactive therapeutic agents. In addition, the traditional varieties of C. edulis identified by some morphological characters of taxonomic importance provide a vital clue of possible existence of infraspecific taxa of C. edulis which, to date, has no documented infraspecific taxa.

Keywords : Qat , ethnomedicinal , traditional varieties , psychostimulant
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Deflection in RCC Beam Covered with Sisal Cordage
Authors : Anand Daftardar,Jigisha Vashi,Shirish Vichare

The RCC structures show distressing signs within a span of only 6 to 10 years, whereas, the standard life of RCC frame structure is considered to be about 60 - 80 years. This can be recognized by number of reasons like non-maintenance, changed usage arrangement or initial inferior quality of construction. Such distressed beams often require strengthening. The most likely way to increase stability is to increase the strength of a structure. For strengthening the structural components, concrete jacketing and steel jacketing are the two general methods implemented. They are not only increase the cross sectional area and self-weight of the structure but also offer poor resistance to weather attacks. In the present paper, concept of covering of the beam with natural sisal fibres is assessed. Sisal fibres have strength, durability, ability to stretch, affinity for certain dyestuffs, and resistance to deterioration in saltwater. For present study, a RCC beam hinged at both the ends and subjected to point load at the center of beam is covered with sisal fibres and is analyzed using ANSYS software. The results are compared with analysis of beam without sisal fibres. This analysis results shows that, about 5 % decrease in deflection of beam by use of sisal fibres than normal.

Keywords : RCC Beam , Sisal Cordage , Numerical Analysis , Deflection
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Phenotypic and allelic distribution of ABO And Rh-D blood Groups in Blood Transfusion Center of Avicenna Military Hospital, Marrakech, Morocco
Authors : Hafid Zahid,Anass Yahyaoui,Jean Uwingabiye,Abdelhak El Khazraji,Rachid El Hadef,Nezha Messaoudi

Introduction: the purpose of our work was to present new national statistical of phenotypic and genotypic prevalence of ABO and Rhesus (D) blood groups using a new sample. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the department of blood transfusion center of the Avicenna Military hospital Marrakech on a sample of 8077 young recruits between 1/1/2015and 12/31/2015. This is a military population from different Moroccan region, composed by 98% of men and 2% of women, whose ages range between 18 and 21 years. Results: The blood group “O” was found in approximately half of the samples (49,01%), the rate of group A (31.47%) was two times higher than that of group B (15.15%), group AB was the least frequent (4.35%). We note a clear predominance of the Rh positive subjects (89.86%) compared to the Rh negative subjects (10.13%) in our Moroccan population. Regarding the frequency of the genotypes of our population we have the following results: O allele was the most common, its prevalence was 89.82%, the A allele was in second position with a frequency of 19, 90 %, allele B was the least frequent (10, 28%). The allele D (RH1) (68.17%) was dominant over the d (RH-1) allele (31.82%).Discussion and conclusion: Our results are compared to previous similar studies carried out in Morocco and in other countries. These results are identical to those found in Mediterranean countries and shows that Morocco is in an intermediate situation between the countries of Europe and those of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords : ABO blood group , Rhesus blood group
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Impact of parenting style on children’s academic achievement
Authors : Zinnatul Borak,Umme Kawser,Mahjabeen Haque,Afia Afroze Sharmin

The purpose of the present study was to explore the impact of parenting style on children’s academic performance. In order to achieve this, 110 students whose age ranging between 20 and 22 years were taken as sample, among them 55 were male and 50 were female. The Bangla translated version of Parental Acceptance Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) was used for data collection. Pearson product moment correlation was carried out to see the relations of PARQ-M and PARQ-F with academic performance of children. Correlation analysis indicated that academic result has positive correlation with authoritative parenting style for both parents (Mother, r=.790** p<0.01

Keywords : Parenting style , academic achievement
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research
Manuscript Code : Father, r=.769** p<0.01). That is authoritative parenting style facilitates to increase academic performance of children.

Title : Zika Virus Affects the Placental Villi
Authors : Olivar C Castejón

The pathogenesis of Zika virus infection is not well known and the effects on the structure of the placental villi require to be investigated. Is our proposal to describe the histopathological changes that occur in the placental villi provoked by Zika virus. The pacient of 38 years old was infected during the third trimester of pregnancy a week before parturition manifesting symptoms of infection by Zika. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used. Numerous stem villi are suffering degenerative changes with collapsed vessels. A conglomerate of syncytial knots and degenerated peripheric surface can be seen. Immature intermediate villi suffers fibrinoid deposition with macrophagues together in Hoffbauer channels. Necrosis of the syncytium and stromal fibrosis were noted on the placental villi. Koylocytic cell,destroyed villi,damage in the wall of vessels and mature intermediate villi with scarcity of terminal villi were found. Bad development of the ramifications of the placental villi and regions of lysis in stromal region were located. Thrombus and edema could not be seen. The placental villous tree has been found suffering severe degenerative changes and bad development indicating a destructive effect on the structure of the placenta that could to explain the cytopathic effect provoked by zika virus.Zika virus Placental villi Degenerative changes.

Keywords : Zika Virus , Placental Villi
Published in : BMR Medicine

Title : Toxicological effect of aqueous extracts of Croton lobatus L. and Schrankia leptocarpa L. in rats model
Authors : Latifou Lagnika,Mounirou Tchachedre,Anatole Laleye,Ambaliou Sanni

In a preliminary evaluation of ethnobotanically selected Beninese medicinal plants for their pharmacological activity, Croton lobatus L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Schrankia leptocarpa (Mimosaceae) showed interesting activities against Plasmodium and microbial strains. Considering these biological activities and the extensive use of these plants in traditional medicine, the toxicological profile of their aqueous extracts was assessed using oral acute toxicity in the rat model. Acute toxicity of aqueous extracts of tested plants was assessed at a dose of 2000 mg/kg as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, guideline n° 423. The rats were observed for signs of toxicity or death after administration of extracts. Distilled water was used for control rats. Blood samples were collected and used to evaluate biochemistry and hematology parameters. Histopathological evaluation was also done on liver and kidney. The results revealed that all tested animals were physically active during the test. No signs of toxicity or morbidity in rats treated with extracts were observed. There were no significant variations in the biochemical and hematological parameters between rats treated with aqueous extract of Schrankia leptocarapa and those received distilled water. A significant decrease of serum alanine aminotransferase and Creatinine (P = 0.01) level was observed in rats treated with aqueous extract of Croton lobatus while a significantly increased level of RBC (P = 0.04) and Hematocrit (P = 0.01). Histopathological examination of liver and kidney sections of rats treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extracts of Croton lobatus, Schrankia leptocarpa did not show any changes when compare to control rats. These results indicate that the oral administration of aqueous extracts (decoction) of Croton lobatus and Schrankia leptocarpa did not produce any significant toxic effect in rats.

Keywords : Biochemical , heamatological , histopathology , toxicity , Croton lobatus , Schrankia leptocarpa ,
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Title : Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Some Folklore ethanomedicinal plants on female Albino Rats
Authors : Pratibha Rohankar

Ailanthus excelsa, cressandra Infundibuliformis have been used traditional system of medicine to treat various health problems in tribal areas. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic potential of these plants. The ethanolic leaves extract of these plants were tested in streotozocin induced diabetic rats.In long term treatment of STZ induced diabetic rats ,the degree of the effect was determined by measuring blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and creatinine levels. Both the extracts showed a significant anti-diabetic activity comparable with that of glibenclamide the methanolic extracts also showed improvement in liid profile and liver kidney functions which reinforce as a possible mechanism of their antidiabetic activity.

Keywords : Ailanthus excela , cressandra Infundibuliformis ,antidietic ethanomedicinal
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Ethno-Medicinal plants used to treat some psychological (mental) disorders by traditional practitioners of vijayapur(Bijapur) district of Karnataka,India
Authors : Srinath Rao,Arati Laddimath

An ethno-botanical survey of Vijayapur district comprising five tehsils was conducted during February 2014 to April 2016. The main purpose of this survey was to document the traditional use of medicinal plants for mental health in vijayapur district. 29 species belonging to 28 genera and 20 families were found to be used to treat some psychological disorder. The scientific name and family, local name, habit, along with part used and mode of their administration are provided.

Keywords : Traditional herbal medicine , ethno-botanist , psychological & mental disorders , Vijayapur , Karnataka , India
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Hair Disorders, Treatment and Care: an Overview

Hair loss is very common disorders in human belonging to every age group . Hair loss (alopecia) affects men and women and often significantly affects social and psychologic well-being. Although alopecia has several causes, a careful history, close attention to the appearance of the hair loss, and a few simple studies can quickly narrow the potential diagnoses. Androgenetic alopecia, one of the most common forms of hair loss, usually has a specific pattern of temporal-frontal loss in men and central thinning in women. Topical minoxidil has approved to treat men and women, with the addition of finasteride for men. Telogen effluvium is characterized by the loss of “handfuls” of hair, often following emotional or physical stress. Alopecia areata, trichotillomania, traction alopecia, and tinea capitis have unique features on microscopic examination that aid in diagnosis. Evaluating and treating hair loss (alopecia) is an important part of primary care, yet many physicians find it complex and confusing. Hair loss affects men and women and frequently has significant social and psychologic consequences. Therefore it is highly imperative to find safe alternative or a new therapy to treat such hair losses. RCHMA has developed a new homoeopathic formulation to treat all kind of hair disorders. Formulation “HAIR LOSS” is highly efficient to treat various disorders. About more than 4000 diagnosed cases of hair loss are well treated. Some cases were detailed in the present paper.A detail review of its efficiencies are explored in the paper for general as well as scientific interest

Keywords : Hair Disorder
Published in : Journal of Recent Advances in Applied Sciences

Title : In-Silico Characterization of 14-alpha Sterol Demethylase of Aspergillus fumigatus
Authors : Pravesh Verma,Navneet Kumar Yadav,Kunwar Sarvendra,A. K. Srivastava

The eukaryotes sterol pathways are extremely conserved and these biosynthetic pathway are very long which includes the synthesis of dolichols, coenzyme Q, heme A, and isoprenylated proteins.14-Demethylase is an essential enzyme of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which is potential the target of azole antifungals. Predicted results shows that 14-alpha sterol demethylase have molecular weight of 58930.8 Daltons and the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 7.64. The negative Grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) index of ‐0.125. The Aliphatic index of Aspergillus fumigates 14-alpha sterol demethylase is 89.48. Alpha helix (Hh) accounts 210 amino acids of about 40.08%. The extended strand (Ee) had 91 amino acids accounting 17.37, Beta turn (Tt) made up of 51 amino acids making up 9.73% and random coil (Cc) made up of 172 amino acids accounting 32.82%. The subcellular localization of 14-alpha sterol demethylase Cyp51B was predicted to be a Plasma membrane protein.

Keywords : Aspergillus fumigates , ergosterol , azole , cytochrome P450
Published in : Journal of Recent Advances in Applied Sciences

Title : Sero-prevalence of cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies in pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in Birnin-Kebbi, Kebbi state, Nigeria.
Authors : Chilaka Chidinma Glory,Manga Shuaibu Bala,Yakubu SE,Ukatu Victoria Ebere,Rupashree Singh

Cytomegalovirus has been described as an important etiological agent of intrauterine infection in pregnant women that causes congenital malformations like intrauterine growth restriction, cerebral palsy. The study on seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies was conducted on one hundred and twenty pregnant women attending, ante-natal clinics in two hospitals in Birnin-Kebbi. The serum samples were examined for the presence of IgG antibodies against cytomegalovirus by Elisa technique. From the 120 blood samples collected, 112 (93.3%) were seropositive for cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies and 8 (6.7%) did not have the CMV IgG antibodies. There was no significant relation of CMV IgG seropositivity with increasing age, occupation, residence, stage of pregnancy and parity, however there was association between level of education and CMV IgG seropositivity. Cytomegalovirus IgG antibodies seroprevalence rate was higher in women from urban rural as compared to those of urban rural areas. All women (100%) who had secondary and tertiary education had CMV IgG antibodies and it was high (100%) in civil servants and urban women (96.2%). CMV IgG antibodies was absent in women who were in 1st trimester (3, 11.5%) and 2nd trimester (5, 8.6%). Women (100%) in 3 rdtrimester and who had one and three children had 100% CMV IgG antibodies. There should be voluntary screening of all pregnant women for CMV infection and its antibodies as part of the antenatal care. The identified susceptible/seronegative women should be educated on appropriate preventive measures.

Keywords : Seroprevalence , Cytomegalovirus , IgG antibodies , pregnant women , Birnin-Kebbi
Published in : BMR Microbiology

Title : Physico-Chemical, Heavy Metal and Microbiological Concentrations in Soil and Water Samples Around Veritas University Campus, Obehie, Southeastern Nigeria
Authors : H. O. Nwankwoala,P. O. Youdeowei,E. R. Daka

Surface water, soil microbiology, heavy metals, borehole, Pollution, Obehie: This study aims at evaluating the physico-chemical, heavy and microbiological concentrations in soil and water samples around Veritas University, Obehie, Abia State, Nigeriato prevent the risk on the public health.Standard sampling and analytical methods were employed during the study. Results of the study revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water samples were low (mostly < 0.001), and hydrocarbon were also below detection limit in all borehole samples. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were also low, ranging from < 0.001 mg/l in some cases, with the highest single value being 0.165mg/l for iron. Total hydrocarbon content was also below detection levels in surface water showing unpolluted conditions.Heterotrophic bacteria densities were high in soil samples, ranging from 1.0 x 104 to 3.5 x 105 cfu/g soil. Densities of heterotrophic fungi were high in some locations, ranging from 1.0 x 103 to 1.5 x 105 cfu/g. Counts of petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were generally high. Percentage petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were greater than 1 % in all samples, except at one location. Microbial populations of soils particularly high in petroleum degraders (> 1 %) show that the soils have been exposed to contamination from petroleum products. High counts in some of the samples indicate normal microbial growth and activities. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi contribute to good quality soil in terms of fertility. The quality of the borehole and surface water quality is fairly good hence, regular monitoring of water quality in the area is very necessary.

Keywords : Surface water , soil microbiology , heavy metals , borehole , Pollution , Obehie: This study aims at evaluating the physico-chemical , heavy and microbiological concentrations in soil and water samples around Veritas University , Obehie , Abia State , Nigeriato prevent the risk on the public health.Standard sampling and analytical methods were employed during the study. Results of the study revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water samples were low (mostly < 0.001) , and hydrocarbon were also below detection limit in all borehole samples. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were also low , ranging from < 0.001 mg/l in some cases , with the highest single value being 0.165mg/l for iron. Total hydrocarbon content was also below detection levels in surface water showing unpolluted conditions.Heterotrophic bacteria densities were high in soil samples , ranging from 1.0 x 104 to 3.5 x 105 cfu/g soil. Densities of heterotrophic fungi were high in some locations , ranging from 1.0 x 103 to 1.5 x 105 cfu/g. Counts of petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were generally high. Percentage petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were greater than 1 % in all samples , except at one location. Microbial populations of soils particularly high in petroleum degraders (> 1 %) show that the soils have been exposed to contamination from petroleum products. High counts in some of the samples indicate normal microbial growth and activities. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi contribute to good quality soil in terms of fertility. The quality of the borehole and surface water quality is fairly good hence , regular monitoring of water quality in the area is very necessary.
Published in : The International Journal of Earth & Environmental Sciences

Title : Barriers of Inclusive Education in Bangladesh: Making Inclusion a Reality
Authors : Umme kawser,Maliha Ahmed,Mostak Ahmed

Inclusive Education, Barriers, Special Education: The purpose of this research is to identify barriers of inclusive education in Bangladesh context. Inclusive education is an approach of educating students with special educational needs. Under the inclusion model, students with special needs spend most or all of their time with students without disability. The research involves interviewing professionals who worked in the area of promoting inclusive education. After interviewing samples some barriers are identified. Those are- negative social attitudes, lack of teachers training, limited resources, accessibility issue, lack of awareness among people, faulty policy making and problems in administration, institutional power distance and lack of team work. We can work on these barriers to ensure education for all in a true meaning.

Keywords : Inclusive Education , Barriers , Special Education: The purpose of this research is to identify barriers of inclusive education in Bangladesh context. Inclusive education is an approach of educating students with special educational needs. Under the inclusion model , students with special needs spend most or all of their time with students without disability. The research involves interviewing professionals who worked in the area of promoting inclusive education. After interviewing samples some barriers are identified. Those are- negative social attitudes , lack of teachers training , limited resources , accessibility issue , lack of awareness among people , faulty policy making and problems in administration , institutional power distance and lack of team work. We can work on these barriers to ensure education for all in a true meaning.
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Present Review on Phytochemistry, Neutraceutical, Antimicrobial, Antidiabetic, Biotechnological and Pharmacological Characterictics of Moringa oleifera Linn.
Authors : Ashwani Kumar,Farha Naaz,Akansha Kushwaha,Priya Chaudhary,Prachi Srivastav

M. oleifera, Drumstick, Phytochemical, Pharmacology, Phytophysiological: Nature has provided a complete store-house of remedies to cure all aliments of mankind. Records of pre-historic civilization in different parts of the world revealed considerable range of medicinal plants to cure human ailments. M. oleifera belongs to family Nyctaginaceae. M. oleifera has been extensively used in almost all folklore remedies around the world for treating a variety of conditions. It has been reported that indigenous Mexican population uses various decoctions and preparations of M. oleifera for muscular pain, diarrhoea, dysentery, and abdominal colic. The plant has been extensively studied for a variety of bioactive principles and screened for different pharmacological activities. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and the stem was found to have potent antinociceptive activity in experimental mice. The plant has also proved to possess antibacterial, antiviral and antioxidant activity. This article briefly reviews the botany, pharmacology, biochemistry and therapeutic application of the plant. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspects of M. oleifera and highlight the need for research and development.

Keywords : M. oleifera , Drumstick , Phytochemical , Pharmacology , Phytophysiological: Nature has provided a complete store-house of remedies to cure all aliments of mankind. Records of pre-historic civilization in different parts of the world revealed considerable range of medicinal plants to cure human ailments. M. oleifera belongs to family Nyctaginaceae. M. oleifera has been extensively used in almost all folklore remedies around the world for treating a variety of conditions. It has been reported that indigenous Mexican population uses various decoctions and preparations of M. oleifera for muscular pain , diarrhoea , dysentery , and abdominal colic. The plant has been extensively studied for a variety of bioactive principles and screened for different pharmacological activities. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and the stem was found to have potent antinociceptive activity in experimental mice. The plant has also proved to possess antibacterial , antiviral and antioxidant activity. This article briefly reviews the botany , pharmacology , biochemistry and therapeutic application of the plant. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspects of M. oleifera and highlight the need for research and development.
Published in : BMR Phytomedicine

Title : The Origins of Japanese Harakiri
Authors : Teresa Mili

Harakiri was a ritual practise by the samurai class. To die one day is a natural phenomenon but dying with dignity was very important and death was an important occasion to make self-honour. It was popular in the history of Japan, samurai committed hara-kiri at the death of his master, husband, defeat in the war, not getting one’s love etc. Saigo Takamori who led rebellion against the government committed hara-kiri when got defeated in the war. In the 1970 harakiri was committed by Yukio Mishima one of most famous writer in Japan, with perfect techiques and blow which had surprised the world

Keywords : hara-kiri , samurai , Yukio , honour , meiji , tokugawa
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Competence, Commitment, and Readiness for Accreditation of Faculty Members of the Nonaccredited Information Technology Programs of Sucs
Authors : Rose May Cora P. Lagon

The main objective of this study was to ascertain the Information Technology faculty competence and commitment at state universities and colleges (SUCs) in Region VI and their relationship to readiness for accreditation. This study utilized the descriptive-correlational type of research. It was found out that the level of Competence and commitment of IT Faculty Members of Non-Accredited Information Technology Programs of SUCs in Region VI is Very High. On the otherhand the level of of Readiness for Accreditation of Faculty Members of Non-Accredited IT Programs of SUCs in Region VI is Highly Ready. Furthermore, The findings revealed that no significant correlation existed as shown by a Pearson’s r. Lastly, The findings revealed that no significant correlation existed as shown by a Pearson’s r.

Keywords : Competence , Commitment , Readiness And Information Technology Programs
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Servant Leadership and Reform Initiative of SUC President in Panay Island
Authors : Rome B. Moralista

the Extent of Reform Initiatives of SUCs Presidents in Terms of Instruction, Research, Extension, and Production among the SUCs in Panay Island which is described as ‚Very Excellent‛

Keywords : Servant Leadership: This survey- correlational research aimed to ascertain the servant leadership and reform initiatives of SUCs president in Panay Island. It was found out that the level of servant leadership among the SUC in Panay Island which described as ‚Outstanding‛
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research
Manuscript Code : the level of servant leadership is not significantly related to the reform initiatives of the SUCs President in Panay Island. Finally, a significant and positive relationship exists between instruction, research, extension, and production.

Title : Hemophagocytic Syndrome, a Retrospective Study in the Military Hospital Mohamed V Rabat Morocco
Authors : Anass Yahyaoui,Hafid Zahid,Rachid Hadef,Nezha Messaoudi

Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HS) is an aggressive and life-threatening syndrome of excessive immune activation. It is mostly associated with underlying pathology, it can reveal: immunodeficiency, infections, cancers and auto-immune diseases. Objective of work: Identify the clinical, biological, etiological and evolutionary features of the HLH. Methods: A retrospective study of patients with HS syndrome collected in the Hematology Laboratory of the Mohamed V Military Hospital Rabat (MVMHR) in Morocco (between 2013 and 2015). Results: We identified 7 cases, 4 males and 3 females, middle aged 46 years. The onset of symptoms was brutal in all patients. The splenomegaly and the inflammatory syndrome were found in all cases. The pancytopenia was observed in 6 patients. The hemophagocytosis in bone marrow smear examination was found in all cases. There were infectious underlying causes in 4 cases: one case of visceral leishmaniasis, one case of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, one case of Escherichia coli sepsis and one case of glandular tuberculosis. For the other patients, there was a case of follicular lymphoma, a case of Hodgkin lymphoma and a case of myelodysplastic syndrome. The outcome was favorable in 3 cases, 4 patients died. Conclusion: The HS is an extreme emergency. Clinical and biological signs are not specific the management should be quick for a better survival.

Keywords : Hemophagocytic syndrome Macrophage.
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Innovation in Teaching among Elementary Teachers at Coto Elementary School, District of Lambunao East, Division of Iloilo, Philippines
Authors : Rome B. Moralista

This study utilized the descriptive method of research. The respondents of the study were the six (6) elementary teachers teaching grade I to grade VI at Coto Elementary School, District of Lambunao East, Division of Iloilo, Philippines for school year 2014-2015. Complete enumeration was used in selecting sample respondents. The researcher-made questionnaire dully validated by panel of experts that would measure the extent of innovation in teaching it consisted of 15 items per category. The respondents were made to identify their innovation in teaching being implemented. The levels of innovation in teaching were determined in a Likert Scal: Strongly Agree Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Disagree and Strongly Disagree. The statistical tools were the mean standard deviation and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The significance level was set at .05. It was found out that teachers respondents’ extent of teaching innovation is very high in all variables such as curriculum, instructional materials and classroom instruction and no significant difference that existed in the extent of implementation of innovation in teaching of elementary teachers in terms of curriculum instructional materials and classroom instruction.

Keywords : Innovation Teaching Elementary Teachers Coto Elementary School , District of Lambunao East , Division of Iloilo , Philippines
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : School Governance Practices among Elementary School Administrators
Authors : Rome B. Moralista

The participants of this investigation were the 48 randomly selected elemetary school head in the District of Lambunao East, Division of Iloilo, Philippines. The simple random sampling method was employed in the selection of the sample participants of the study. The researcher made instruments was used to gather the needed data for the investigation, dully validated by panel of experts with a cronbach alpha of 0.89. The statistical tools were the mean standard deviation and ANNOVA. The level of significance was set at 0.05 alpha was used as the criterion for the acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis. The finding revealed that generally, the result revealed that the extent of school governance practice being implemented is ‚highly govern‛ and when categorized as to govern school autonomy school choice private and public stakeholders management and leadership of school administrators to be very high. while other factors like parent’s involvement school policy quality assurance student’s achievements and teachers monitoring practices highly observe the school governance. the extent of school governance being implemented by school administrators is ‚very highly governed‛ and no the significant difference on the program/activities under school governance and when categorized as to school autonomy school choice private and public stakeholders management and leadership of school administrators parents involvement school policy quality assurance students achievements and teachers monitoring practices.

Keywords : School Governance Practices Elementary School Administrators
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Evaluation of Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Program in the District of Lambunao, East, Division of Iloilo, Philippines
Authors : Rome B. Moralista

The respondents of this present study were the 200 randomly selected elementary pupils in the District of Lambunao East, Division of Iloilo, Philippines. The simple random sampling method was employed in the selection of the sample respondents of the study. The researcher made instruments was used to gather the needed data for the investigation. The statistical tools were the mean standard deviation and ANNOVA. The .05 alpha significance level was used as the criterion for the acceptance or rejection of the null hypothesis. It was found out that the level Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) program among the pupils in the District of Lambunao East, Division of Iloilo, Philippines revealed that sanitation services and practice and for hygiene practices all were very highly practiced in their water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) program and very highly practice in general and no significant difference in the level of Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Program among the grade VI pupils as to sanitation services and practice and hygiene practices.

Keywords : Evaluation Water Sanitation Hygiene Program
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : The Utilization of Educational Technology in Teaching College Students
Authors : Rome B. Moralista

This study utilized the descriptive method of research. This method was most appropriate in determining the used of educational technology in teaching college students of Calinog Campus West Visayas State University, Calinog, Iloilo, Philippines. The respondents of the study were the 46 college faculty of West Visayas State University-Calinog, Campus, Iloilo, Philippines. The purposive sampling method was purposive in selecting respondents. The researcher-made questionnaire that would measure the extent in the use of educational media it consisted of 15 items per category. The statistical tools were used to analyze and interpret the data such as Mean standard deviation and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The significance level was set at .05. The findings revealed that the level of educational technology being used in teaching college students at West Visayas State University-Calinog, Campus for the school year 2015-2016 were ‚Very Highly Used‛ and when categorized as to Television ‚Excellently Used Movies Excellently Used Internet ‚Very Highly Used and Radio ‚Very Highly Used and their is a significant difference was shown in the extent of the use of educational technology in terms of radio and movie. On the other hand, the table showed that there is no significance in the extent of the use of educational technology in terms of television and internet.

Keywords : Use , Educational Technology , Teaching , College Students
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Values and Moral Education Integration among Faculty Members of the School Education at West Visayas State University
Authors : Rome B. Moralista,Gabriel C. Delariarte

The study determined the values and moral education integration among faculty members of the school education at West Visayas State University. Descriptive correlational type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that faculty members were seen by students as integrating values in their teaching learning activities the faculty member are seen by students as integrating morals in their teaching and learning activities and value and moral integration are correlated and interrelated.

Keywords : Values , Moral Education , Integration
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Creativity and Teaching Effectiveness of Elementary Teachers
Authors : Rome Moralista

Creativity is inherit among human beings. Although it is hard to understand, academicians and politicians believe it has so many benefits remains an elusive and imprecisely defined concept, researchers and teachers.This study utilized the descriptive method of research. This method is most appropriate in determining the extent creativity and level of teaching effectiveness of elementary teachers in the District of Lambunao West, Philippines. The researcher also used the descriptive-correlation research design when they tried to find out the direction and extent of relationship between different variables and extent of differences between different variables (Fox, 1999). The respondents of the study were one hundred four (104) elementary teachers in the District of Lambunao West, Division of Iloilo, Province of Iloilo, Region VI - Western Visayas, for school year 2015-2016. The adopted questionnaire were used to determine the extent creativity and level of teaching effectiveness of elementary teachers. The statistical tools were used to analyze and interpret the data were the mean, standard deviation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson’s r. The significance level was set at .05. It was revealed that generally, the extent of creativity of elementary teachers being practiced was “very highly creative” and when categorized elaboration as the highest “excellently creative fluency “very highly creative flexibility and originality as the lowest “very highly creative no significant difference in the extent of creativity of elementary teachers being practiced in various area in-terms of fluency flexibility originality and elaboration. Generally, the result showed that the level of teaching effectiveness of elementary teachers based on the result based performance management system (RPMS) in the different domain is “very highly practiced” and when categorized in different domain as to core behavioural competencies: self-management “outstanding” professionalism and ethics “very satisfactory” result focus “outstanding” teamwork “very satisfactory” service orientation “outstanding” and innovation “very satisfactory”. Core skills: oral communication “very satisfactory” written communication “outstanding” and computer/ict skills “very satisfactory”. Finally, no significant difference on the level of teaching effectiveness of elementary teachers according to various domains in the Result based Performance Management System (RPMS).

Keywords : Creativity , Teaching Effectiveness , Elementary Teachers
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Nutritional Status of Elementary Pupils at the District of Lambunao East, Philippines
Authors : Rome Moralista

Studies on health nutrition have been centralized on hunger, malnutrition, and micronutrient deficiency. The primary approach to learning diet has pointed on the part of individual nutrients or foods. This study utilized the documentary analysis method of research. The respondents of the study were the 1,040 elementary pupils in the District of Lambunao East, Philippines, Region VI - Western Visayas, for school year 2015-2016. Complete enumeration was use in selecting sample respondents. On the other hand, the Nutritional Status Result for the school year 2015-2016 of elementary pupils was used in the present investigation. The data were then summarized and tabulated using the SPSS. The following statistical tools were used to analyze and interpret the data the mean standard deviation and analysis of variance or (ANOVA). The significance level was set at .05. alpha. The findings revealed that as a whole, the result showed that the extent of the nutritional status of respondents was “Moderate” and when categorized as to Normal “High’, Wasted “Moderate” and Severely Wasted “Low” and that there is no significant difference that existed in the extent in nutritional status of pupils’ as to normal wasted (p=.461) and severely wasted.

Keywords : Nutritional Status , Elementary Pupils , District of Lambunao East , Philippines
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Factors Affecting the Music Education in the District of Lambunao East, Province of Iloilo, Philippines
Authors : Rome Moralista

Music education in the Philippines is a very widely ranging subject in the development and administration of music education is essential to elementary pupils and teachers alike. This study utilized the descriptive method of research aimed look into the contributing factors affecting in music education in the District of Lambunao, East, Philippines. The respondents of the study were the 30 music teachers. Complete enumeration was used in selecting sample respondents. The researcher-made questionnaire that would measure the factors affecting the music education it consisted of 15 items per category. The scale of 1 to 5 was used, five being the highest and one is the lowest. The statistical tools were the statistical tools were the mean standard deviation the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The significance level was set at .05. It was found out that the teachers in the District of Lambunao East, Province of Iloilo, Philippines for the school year 2015-2016 were ‚Very High‛ in music education and when categorized as to Psychomotor Domain ‚Excellent‛ Cognitive Domain ‚Very High‛ and Affective Domain ‚Very High‛. The Music teachers excelled in psychomotor because music is supposedly sung and the teachers are the same in their extent of music education when grouped in various area interms of Psychomotor Domain Cognitive Domain and Affective Domain

Keywords : Factors , Affecting , Music Education , District of Lambunao East , Province of Iloilo , Philippines
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Transformative Sustainability Education: Ethics, Leadership, Community Engagement and Social Responsibilities among College Faculties
Authors : Rome B. Moralista,Gabriel C. Delariarte,Rosario Clarabel Contreras

This descriptive correlational research which was conducted in October 2013, sought to find out if the transforming sustainability education has influence on the ethics, leadership, community engagement and social responsibilities of college faculties of West Visayas State University-Calinog, Campus for the school year 2013-2014. The findings revealed that the respondents practice transforming sustainability education highly ethical practice leadership engage in community activities evidently observe their social responsibility and the result shows that the sustainability educations and ethics social responsibility, ethics leadership and community engagement have a significant relationship to each other.

Keywords : Transforming , Sustainability Education , Ethics , Leadership , Community ,Engagement , Social Responsibilities.
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : The Effect of Multimedia Glosses on Vocabulary Development of Intermediate Efl Learners
Authors : Foroogh Azari,Hadi Giahpoor

Technology has got a very important role in vocabulary learning. The present study investigated the effect of multimedia gloss on incidental vocabulary learning of 52 English learners at intermediate level as opposed to paper gloss vocabulary learning. The subjects were divided into two groups, multimedia gloss and paper gloss. A pre-test and a post-test were administered to the groups and the scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. The findings showed that the multimedia gloss group significantly outperformed the paper group in terms of short-term retention of incidentallylearned vocabulary items. Due to the limited time, longer-term retention of the words was not measured. The findings showed that multimedia gloss can benefit intermediate EFL learners in terms of vocabulary learning.

Keywords : Multimedia Gloss , Paper Gloss , Intermediate EFL Learners , Incidental Vocabulary Learning
Published in : Journal of Arts & Language Studies

Title : The RTS,S/AS Malaria Vaccine Candidate: A Status Review
Authors : Billy Lubanga,Alex Chemtai,Daniel Kwaro

The RTS,S/AS malaria vaccine candidate is currently the most advanced in development. It is based on the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) combined with hepatitis B surface antigen. The vaccine is designed to prevent the malaria parasite from infecting the liver where it can mature, multiply, and re-enter the bloodstream, where it infects red blood cells and leads to symptomatic disease. This review documents the development process of the RTS,S/AS malaria vaccine candidate, from preclinical and early clinical trials to the recently concluded Phase III clinical trials. The final results demonstrated that vaccination with the 3-dose primary series reduced clinical malaria cases by 28% in young children and 18% in infants. A booster dose of RTS, S/AS, administered 18 months after the primary series, reduced the number of cases of clinical malaria in young children (aged 5-17 months at first vaccination) by 36% and in infants (aged 6-12 weeks at first vaccination) by 26%. Administration of the booster dose provided longer term protection against clinical malaria in both groups, with 1774 and 983 cases of malaria averted per 1000 children vaccinated in the older (age 5-17 months) and infant (6-12 weeks) age groups, respectively. The vaccine efficacy waned over time following the booster dose and further studies are ongoing to assess long term efficacy and the need for additional doses .The safety profile of the vaccine was acceptable. The vaccine has the potential to make a substantial contribution to malaria control when used in combination with other effective control measures, especially in areas of high transmission.

Keywords : RTS ,S/AS malaria vaccine candidate , Malaria , circumsporozoite protein , Plasmodium parasite , vaccine efficacy
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Therapeutic Uses of Mom Zard (Beeswax) in Unani System of Medicine - A Review
Authors : Shamim Khan,Qamrul Hasan Lari,Mahmood Ahmad Khan

Mom Zard (beeswax) is an animal source of origin medicine which is secreted by wax glands of honey bees. Since ancient periods Unani physicians have been using it as medicinal purpose orally as well as topically as a base of Qairooti (oil+beeswax), Zamad (paste) and Marham (ointment). Ibn-e-Sina (Avicenna) stated that Mom Zard has mainly talyeen (aperient), tahleel-e-auram (resolution of inflammations) and indemal (healing) properties. The effects of mom zard can be attributed to the presence of palmitate, palmitoleate and oleate esters and triacontanyl palmitateto cerotic acid. The aim of this paper is to highlight the pharmacological actions and therapeutic applications of the Mom Zard as per descriptions in Unani literatures.

Keywords : Mom Zard , Anti-inflammatory activity , Healing activity , Anti-hemorrhoid Activity
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Gau dugdha (Cow Milk) - Its Nutritional and Therapeutic value
Authors : Baby Ganeriwala,K. S. Gudagnatti,U. B. Bolmal

Milk has very important and unique nutritional as well as therapeutic value. Milk is useful in all age groups, even in young age it is considered as a balance diet. Its therapeutic range is as broad as its nutritional value. Ayurveda has mentioned therapeutic value of dugdha in detail according to the color, age, habitat and food pattern of the cow which is not found in any other texts. Here some efforts are given to collect all facts about cow’s milk.

Keywords : Gau dugdha , balance diet , nutritional , therapeutic value
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for Evaluation of Functional Properties of Extruded Product Developed from Beetroot Leaves Powder (BRLP) along with Cereals and Pulse Powder
Authors : Subhash B. Kakade,Bahadur Singh Hathan,Neeha VS

Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) green is more nutritious as compared to the beetroot but many part of India it is not used as food it is only used as animal fodder so that we can utilize beetroot green waste which is nutritionally rich in fiber, protein, and carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals for the products development to overcome the malnutrition problem of developing countries. In this study Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effect of moisture content, chickpea powder and beetroot leaves powder on the functional properties of extradites developed from beetroot leaves powder (BRLP) along with cereals and pulse powder. Moisture content, chickpea powder and beetroot leaves powder had significant effect on lateral expansion, water absorption capacity (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and sensory evaluation. Result showed that with increase in moisture content and chickpea powder lateral expansion of extrudates increase up to optimum level and finally decrease. Increase in moisture content, chickpea powder and beetroot leaves powder resulted in decrease in lateral expansion of the extradites. Results revealed that optimized extruded products are rich in crude fiber content and total phenolic content (TPC).

Keywords : Beetroot Leaves Powder (BRLP) , Chickpea Powder , Extrusion , Moisture Content , Response Surface Methodology (RSM) , Total Phenolic Content (TPC)
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : Evaluation of Erodibility Status of Soils in some Areas of Imo and Abia States of Nigeria
Authors : Andy Obinna Ibeje

In this study, the erodibility indices and some soil properties of some cassava farms in selected areas of Abia and Imo States were investigated. This study involves taking measurements of some soil parameters such as permeability, soil texture and particle size analysis from which the erodibility indices were compared. Results showed that soils of the areas are very sandy. The results showed that Isiukwuato with index of 72 has the highest erodibility index. The results also showed that Arondizuogu with index of 34 has the least erodibility index. The results revealed that soil erodibility (k) values varied from 34 to 72. Nkporo has the highest sand content, Inyishie has the least silt content. The result indicates that there were respectively strong inverse relationship between clay and silt contents and erodibility index. On the other hand, sand, organic matter and moisture contents as well as soil permeability has significantly high positive correlation with soil erodibility and it can be concluded that particle size distribution is a major finger print on the erodibility index of soil in the study area. It is recommended that safe cultural practices like crop rotation, matching and adoption of organic farming techniques be incorporated into farming communities of Abia and Imo States in order to stem the advances of erosion in the study area.

Keywords : Erodibility , indices , soil , sand
Published in : The International Journal of Earth & Environmental Sciences

Title : Influence Of The Sports Tourism Attractiveness, Motivation, And Experience On Revisit Intentions
Authors : Feng-Hsiang Chang,Chih-Yung Tsai

The enhancement in economic growth and national income in Taiwan in recent years as well as the 2-day weekend implemented in 2001 have caused a transformation in the lifestyle of Taiwanese people. Under the increase of both national income and leisure time, Taiwanese people’s needs for leisure activities and their emphasis on health have grown these factors have increased their intention to engage in leisure activities. Sports tourism comprises various outdoor adventurous activities (e.g., rafting, river trekking, rock climbing, mountaineering, sea kayaking, and paragliding), and this industry has grown substantially in Taiwan. In the Investigation of Trips Taken by Citizens in 2005, the Tourism Bureau showed that 9.3% of citizens who took domestic trips on weekends took them for the purpose of sports vacations. Although the figure was 2.8% lower in 2005 than that observed in 2004, the decrease was mainly caused by typhoon warnings issued on weekends, which lowered intentions to take domestic trips. Moreover, in the Investigation of Trips Taken by Citizens in 2006 released by the Tourism Bureau, most citizens (61%) took trips for the reason of purely sightseeing, followed by visiting friends and families (22%) and sports vacations (7%). In summary, people who took trips for the purposes of sightseeing, resting, and vacationing increased by 5% from 2005 to 2006. These statistics show that sightseeing trips that focus on sports vacations, namely sports tourism, have become one of the popular travel activities among Taiwanese people on 2-day weekends. The results of the present study show that in sports tourism-based activities, gaining multiple experiences (e.g., interactions that assist tourists to form closer bonds with each other, relaxation practices, stress relief, physical strength enhancement, flexibility or fitness improvement, and trust in activity instructors) is a main factor influencing tourist satisfaction in the activities they have participated in. Therefore, this study suggests that for related authorities to develop sports tourism programs, various types of experiences should be incorporated. Multiple options enable tourists to evaluate the activities they participate as appropriate and satisfactory. In addition, the revisit intentions of tourists is based on their level of satisfaction with the activities they participate in. Therefore, to enhance tourist revisit intention, this study suggests that related authorities ensure that tourists have satisfactory and safe experiences when they participate in sports tourism programs.

Keywords : tourism attractiveness , tourist motivation , tourist experience , satisfaction , revisit intention
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Relationships Among Service Quality, Leisure Benefits, Overall Satisfaction, And Revisit Intention: Cultural Parks As An Example
Authors : Feng-Hsiang Chang,Chih-Yung Tsai

Cultural industries have attracted wide academic attention and triggered worldwide discussion in recent years. Advanced countries have developed social and economic development policies for their cultural industries. Governments and private institutions have jointly deliberated over their associated industrial transition direction under globalization and localization, actively promoted the development of cultural industries, integrated culture and economy, and created high value-added benefits. As a major investor in the development of cultural arts, local governments and cities in Taiwan have invested considerable funds and efforts to develop cultural art activities and create cultural spaces. Culture has become a primary appeal for local development and the optimal basis of strategies for enhancing local visibility, facilitating transition of local cultural industries, and planning and developing leisure and tourism industries. Moreover, organizing planning and research activities for community, local, and cultural industries under the approach of “Culture Industrialization and Industries Culturalization” can promote local cultural industries to the international market through marketing and packaging. The results of this study revealed that the tangibility in service quality was a primary factor influencing satisfaction, and the psychological benefits dimension of leisure benefits had the greatest influence on overall satisfaction, followed by physiological benefits and social benefits. For service quality, the tangibility dimension had the greatest influence on revisit intention, followed by assurance and responsiveness. For leisure benefits, psychological benefits had the greatest influence on revisit intention, followed by physiological benefits and social benefits. Finally, visitors who felt satisfied with the cultural park and perceived that they had made a correct choice to visit the cultural park typically had a high revisit intention. Thus, we recommend that related sectors hold various cultural activities to enhance interaction between visitors and between visitors and park staff, and consequently provide leisure benefits during the park development process. In addition, park promotion through the media and online marketing, such as the Travel Supplement of China Times and ezTravel, should be emphasized. Product stories should also be strengthened to attract visitors and attain the goal of sustainable management.

Keywords : service quality , leisure benefit , overall satisfaction , revisit intention.
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Influences Of The Cultural Implications And Tourism Attractiveness Of Festival Tourism On Tourist Loyalty
Authors : Feng-Hsiang Chang,Chih-Yung Tsai

Festival tourism can preserve local characteristics and promote tourism development therefore, it has gradually become the most appropriate choice for tourism industry development in Taiwan. Short-term festival events combined with local human cultural resources and cultural assets can strengthen the local tourism image and attract tourists. Tourists’ purchases during festival tourism can promote local economic development. This study verified that, regarding cultural implications, cultural integration was the main factor influencing tourism attractiveness, followed by cultural recognition and characteristics. In addition, whether education activities were incorporated into festival events was relatively critical in terms of influencing tourism attractiveness, and whether the comprehensive functions and activities at the festival events enabled tourists to relax and gain new experiences influenced tourist loyalty. On the basis of the results, this study recommends that when relevant departments hold festival events, they must combine festival events with local cultural characteristics and with uniquely designed activities to elevate the cultural implications of festival tourism. Moreover, convenient transportation, comprehensive recreational spaces, and comprehensive shopping mechanisms can elevate tourism attractiveness. When in-depth cultural implications are incorporated into festival tourism to promote tourism attractiveness, tourist loyalty can be substantially elevated.

Keywords : cultural implication tourism attractiveness loyalty.
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Investigating the Effect of Story Retelling on Improving Iranian EFL Learners’ Speaking Performance
Authors : Elnaz Shoari,Hanieh Davatgari Asl

The place of speaking is the heart of the language learning in general and foreign/second language learning in particular. Thus developing this oral productive skill is of great importance in the process of language learning and particularly in the process of foreign language learning. The more authentic materials of teaching speaking the more successful effective foreign language classes we would have. So the present study aimed at investigating the effect of the story retelling on improving speaking performance of the learners. Sixty female learners have participated in this quasi-experimental study of which lasted one academic semester. The findings of the study provided strong support for the positive effects of story retelling it might be due to the authenticity and attractiveness of the stories. Through reproducing stories learners would be more autonomous and self-directed learners. This might be due to the role of authenticity of materials in language learning processes. Since authentic materials are designed for real language use in real situations and not for pedagogical purposes.

Keywords : Story retelling , Iranian EFL learners , speaking performance
Published in : Journal of Arts & Language Studies

Title : Documentation of Indigenous and Traditional Knowledge of Irular tribe of Ariyalur District, TamilNadu
Authors : Panneer Selvam K,R. Ezhumalai,A. Rajasekar,A. Vijayaragavan,P. Samydurai,V. Aravindhan,M. Senthilkumar,M. Saradha

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the ethnic groups (Irular) in Ariyalur District, Tamilnadu. The tribal communities of Irular have rich knowledge about medicinal plants and its traditional uses. Therefore, we have done an exhaustive ethnobotanical survey in this area. In this present investigation, it is observed that the tribes being used 48 wild valuable plant species belonging to 32 families were identified with relevant information and documented in this paper with regard to their botanical name, family, vernacular name, parts used and utilization by the local tribal people for different human ailments. The common diseases treated by the herbal practitioner were asthma, cold, cough, indigestion, aphrodisiacs, paralyzes, skin diseases and diabetes.

Keywords : Ethnobotany , traditional knowledge , medicinal plants and skin disease
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Participatory Behavior Of University Students In Non- Profit Organizations
Authors : Feng-Hsiang Chang,Chih-Yung Tsai

Non-profit organizations are increasing in number in Taiwan, as are volunteers for social services. Volunteering is spontaneous participation in service work, yet university students have low willingness to participate in non-profit organizations. This study sought the factors that affect students’ willingness to participate in non-profit organizations and their attitude towards participating in non-profit organizations. The study conducted field research on university students and found that the main reason for students’ participation in non-profit organizations was student intention. Student attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavior also influence students’ intention to participate in non-profit organizations. These results can serve as a reference in future policy making.

Keywords : : non-profit organization , attitude , behavioral intention
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : The Epidemiology Of Myelodysplastic Syndromes Retrospective Study In The Hematology Department Of The Military Hospital Of Rabat
Authors : Anass Yahyaoui,Hafid Zahid,Fayçal Labrini,Rachid Hadef,Nezha Messaoudi

There is no data on myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in Morocco. Indeed, this disease has long remained unexplored. We present the epidemiological data on MDS of the department of hematology of the Mohamed V Military Hospital for a period of 9 years and 4 months. In this study, we registered the MDS cases diagnosed by bone marrow examinations between January 2006 and April 2015. We classified these cases according to the 2008 WHO classification. Patients with secondary MDS (post-chemo/radiotherapy were excluded from the analysis. We compiled 155 cases, which is equivalent to 21% of the malign hemopathies recorded on the same period. The median age of diagnosis was 62 years. The group of age under 50 years represented only 8% of the whole study population. There was a preponderance of males with a M/F ratio of 1.58. The distribution according to the WHO subtypes was as follows: refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (61%) followed by refractory anemia with excess of blasts type 1 (26%) and type 2 (9%). The number of new MDS cases increased through the analyzed period of time. It went from 45 new cases between 2006 and 2011 to 110 new cases between 2012 and the start of 2015. The global frequency of MDS increased over recent years due to the cytologists’ increasing awareness of this disease. A national registry is thus imperative in order to estimate the real incidence of MDS in our country and to improve the knowledge on these hemopathies

Keywords : Myelodysplastic syndrome - Epidemiology
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Relationship between Iranian EFL Learner’s Self-Esteem, and Grammatical Accuracy in Written Discourse
Authors : Samineh Poorsoti,Nader Asadi

This study aimed at investigating the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ self-esteem and grammatical accuracy of their writings. The participants were 60 male and female advanced learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at Iran Language Institute (ILI), Tabriz, Iran. The data were collected by administering Coopersmith self-esteem questionnaire and a picture description test (beginners' composition writing through pictures) from Heaton’s book. The results showed a significant positive and weak relationship between the scores of self-esteem and grammatical accuracy score by using Pearson correlation

Keywords : Self-esteem , Grammatical Accuracy
Published in : Journal of Arts & Language Studies

Title : Service quality, recreational attractiveness, and​ ​willingness to return: cultural parks in ​T​aiwan
Authors : Feng-Hsiang Chang,Chih-Yung Tsai

willingness to returnThe cultural industry has been the most popular issue for research and discussion around the world in recent years and has become included in the policies for social and economic development in advanced countries. Governments and private institutions concerned with “globalization” and “localization” promote the development of the cultural industry and combine the humanities and the economy in order to add value. Taiwanese local governments and cities have played important roles in the development of culture and art. In recent years, local governments and cities have invested greatly in cultural and artistic activities and spatial creativity. Culture has increasingly been the major appeal for local development and has been the optimal strategy for raising local publicity. In addition, culture has assisted in the transformation of the cultural industry and been taken into consideration when planning and developing local leisure and tourism industries. Moreover, culture promotes the planning and discussion of communities, local areas, and cultural industries as well as the industrialization of culture and culturalization of industries to help market local cultures on a global scale. The results of this study show that the tangibility and reactivity dimensions in service quality are the main factors influencing the relaxing dimension in recreational attractiveness. In addition, the tangibility dimension in service quality is the main factor influencing tourists’ willingness to return. Lastly, the relaxing dimension in recreational attractiveness is the main factor influencing tourists’ willingness to return. Therefore, the results of this study provide suggestions for relevant authorities when promoting cultural parks, such as, strengthening physical facilities and service-providing equipment and training staff’s problem-solving and consulting skills in order to improve tourist’s image of the park. Moreover, a variety of cultural activities can be held in the park in order to add to the story behind products and improve tourist interactions so that tourists can relax and experience the park and will be more willing to return to the park

Keywords : service quality recreational attractiveness
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Ethnobotanical survey of Gudiyum forests, Thiruvallure District, Tamilnadu, India
Authors : Tamilvannan M. V.,Kadirvelmurugan V.,Ravikumar S.

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out among the ethnic groups of Gudiyum forests situated in the west part of Jaganathapuram village-Nagari District(AP), East part of Uttukottai- Tiruvallur District (TN), North part of Nagalapuram Village – Nagari District(AP) and South part of Poondi Village – Thiruvallure District(TN). It is located in lat: 13.28790 and Log: 79.80867 with area coverage of 148 Acres of Tiruvallur District in Tamil Nadu. Aged local tribal were questioned and based on their input a total of 60 plant species belonging to 38 families are considered to be of ethnobotanical interest. All the plants were evaluated through phytochemical investigations and their potentiality for drugs is assessed. The present study shows how traditional medicine can be used for revival of our own siddha medicines.

Keywords : Ethnobotanical Gudiyum Forest Tribal
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Weed species in sugarcane crop fields of chodavaram mandal of visakhapatnam district, andhra pradesh, india
Authors : D. Appa Rao,S. B. Padal

A field survey was conducted during 2013-14 in sugarcane fields of Chodavaram Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh to study the weed flora. A total of 63 weed species were recorded, of these 63 species, 52 dicot families, 10 monocot families and 1 Pteridophyte. Asteraceae 9, Amaranthaceae 9, Poaceae 8, Euphorbiaceae 6, Aizoaceae 3, Capparaceae 3, Convolvulaceae 2, Fabaceae 2, Malvaceae 2, Portulacaceae 2, Solanaceae 2, Tiliaceae 2 species, remaining families each one had single species. Among the weeds, Panicum repens is the most dominant followed by Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa colona, Ageratum conyzoides and Imperata cylindrica. The survey also revealed that creepers like Passiflora foetida, Ipomoea aquatica, Hemidesmus indicus, Tinospora cardifolia etc. are dominant.

Keywords : Sugarcane , weed flora , Chodavaram Mandal , Visakhapatnam
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Growth and Nutritional Properties of Pleurotus sajor-caju Cultivated on Sawdust of an Exotic and Indigenous Tree Species
Authors : Joseph Fuwape,T. A. Nurudeen ,M.O. Ogunmolu

Pleurotus Sajor-caju was cultivated on the sawdust of Ceiba pentandra and Gmelina arborea with the aim of comparing the nutritional values of the mushrooms cultivated. The sawdust substrates were inoculated with mushroom spawn and the analysis of the nutritional value was carried out using the AOAC 2005 method . The result showed that the pleurotus Sajor-caju grown on the sawdust substrates of Ceiba pentandra has 23.36% protein, 70.42% fat, 3.58% crude fibre, 9.12% nitrogen, 57.02% moisture content, 59.99% organic matter and 29.98% nitrogen. While the mushroom grown on Gmelina arborea has 23.43% protein, 65.06%fat, 2.73% crude fiber, 9.15% nitrogen, 67.76% moisture content, 65.84% organic matter and 24.13% nitrogen. The result indicated that there was no significant difference in the nutritional values of Pleurotus Sajor-caju grown on the sawdust from the selected species. Also, ceiba pentandra supports the growth of pleurotus Sajor-caju more than Gmelina arborea when the total number of days it took both substrates to ramified and emerge spores.

Keywords : Pleurotus Sajor-caju , Ceiba pentandra , Gmelina arborea , spawn
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : The Effect of Cultural/Social Awareness on Making Appropriate Discourse Interpretation of Iranian EFL learners
Authors : Elnaz Shoari,Nader Assadi Aidinlou

We live and are in touch with the world around us through using language, while talking to each other we don’t use sounds words in isolation, but we exchange message. Thus understanding the intended message is of crucial role in this process. Most of the times we experience serious difficulties in interpreting messages simply as a result of lack of shared information. Discourse analysis or discourse interpretation would be a general term for a number of roads for analyzing “written, spoken, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic occurrence”. In the case of foreign languages, cultural and situational factors are of crucial role in making correct interpretations of the meanings. Thus the current study aimed at examining the effect of cultural/social information on making appropriate interpretations of Iranian EFL learners. Sixty female learners participated in this quasi- experimental study which lasted one academic semester. The results of the study provided strong support for the key role of cultural/ situational information about written discourse in making correct explanations. This can be justified by schema theory, since in the process of understanding having common points is essential.

Keywords : cultural awareness , social awareness , discourse interpretation
Published in : Journal of Arts & Language Studies

Title : Sensory acceptability of squash (cucurbita maxima) in baking
Authors : Ramona Borro,Raymund Gemora

This research study aimed to ascertain the sensory acceptability of squash (Cucurbita Maxima) of varied quantities in baking cake as to appearance, taste, color, texture and general acceptability. A panel of 20 evaluators, purposely picked, from the School of Hotel and Restaurant Services Technology of the West Visayas State University – Janiuay Campus, were utilized as respondents. Formulated in the study were four treatments– three of which used squash at various quantities while as the control variable, one treatment, which contained no squash at all, was used. A modified sensory evaluation score sheet anchored on Five-Point Hedonic Scale was used by the respondents to assess the finished products. Means, ANOVA and Scheffe Test were utilized as the statistical tools. As a whole, results disclosed that baked cakes with no grated squash and 120 grams grated squash were moderately liked by the respondents while those baked cakes with 240 grams grated squash and 380 grams grated squash were liked very much by the respondents. There were significant differences in the level of acceptability of the different treatments as to appearance, taste, color, texture as well as general acceptability.

Keywords : Sensory , Acceptability , Squash , Cake
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : Role of the laboratory in the diagnosis of plasma cell leukemia, about an observation
Authors : Anass Yahyaoui,Hafid Zahid,Nezha Messaoudi

The plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is an extremely uncommon malignant blood disorder with a pejorative prognosis. It is defined by the presence of at least 20% of plasma cells in the peripheral blood or an absolute number of circulating plasma cells greater than 2 G /L. It appears under two variants: secondary PCL that complicates known multiple myeloma and primitive PCL that is immediately leukemic. We report the case of a 56 years old male patient who presented 2 months before his hospitalization diffuse bone pains with asthenia. The CBC revealed an anemia and a leukocytosis. The blood smear objectified 3 G/L circulating plasma cells. The bone marrow exam noted a rich cellularity and a marrow invaded up to 60% by dystrophic plasma cells. The clinical presentation of the plasma cell leukemia, its cytological smear characteristics, immunophenotypical, pathophysiological, therapeutic approach and outcome will be reminded in this article.

Keywords : Plasma cell leukemia , PCL , Myeloma , hyperdiploidy
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Production of indole acetic acid, cytokinins and gibberelic acid by pink pigmented facultative methylotrophs
Authors : V. I. Soumya,S. P. Sundaram

In the present study, PPFMs were isolated from phyllosphere of fourteen plants by leaf imprinting and serial dilution techniques. The fourteen isolates were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. The PPFM isolates were screened based on the effect on germination and seedling characters of cowpea cv. CO(CP)7. PPFM inoculation enhanced the germination, seedling length, vigour index, biomass, chlorophyll and soluble protein content of cowpea. Based on this study, nine best isolates including the reference strain M. extorquens AM1 were selected for further studies. The selected PPFM isolates were screened based on plant growth hormone production. The isolates produced trans-zeatin in amounts ranging from 22.04 to 117.32 ng l-1 of culture filtrate. IAA production ranged from 0.14 to 4.69 µg ml-1 of culture filtrate in the absence of the precursor tryptophan and 0.97 to 8.32 µg ml-1 in the presence of tryptophan. All isolates could produce gibberellic acid in amounts ranging from 39.33 to 123.0 µg ml-1 of culture filtrate. The primers specific for ipt gene encoding isopentenyl transferase, the key enzyme in direct synthesis of cytokinins gave amplification in the isolate PPFM-Ph. The trans-zeatin riboside content of four best isolates (PPFM-As, PPFM-Ph, PPFM-Pt and M. extorquens AM1) as estimated by ELISA ranged from 11.22 to 37.07 ng l-1 of culture filtrate.

Keywords : PPFM , IAA , trans-zeatin , gibberellic acid
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Effect of growth regulators on sucker production in exonic varieties of heliconia
Authors : C. R. Reshmi,V. L. Sheela

Heliconias (Heliconia spp.) are attractive tropical plants with banana-like leaves and beautiful, long lasting inflorescences. Each inflorescence is made up of several colorful bracts which enclose the true flowers. Heliconias are also valued as garden plants as their long lasting flowers stand out with striking visual effect on plants. Easiness in cultivation and hardy nature with tolerance to major pests and diseases make this crop more appealing for widespread cultivation. All species of heliconia do not set seeds. Moreover, seed is erratic to germinate and the seedlings may take 12 months or more to emerge. Propagation by rhizomes is the fastest and most reliable method of cultivation. Most of the present day heliconia varieties which are greatly in demand are exotic introductions. Hence, it is essential to evolve techniques for mass multiplication of such varieties making possible the production of large numbers of planting material in limited time. Standardization of faster multiplication techniques using growth regulators would serve as a means to bring down the cost of cultivation of elite varieties. Hence the study was aimed at the enhancement of propagation efficiency in three exotic varieties of heliconia viz., St. Vincent Red (H. psittacorum), Golden Torch Adrian (H. psittacorum x H. spathocircinata) and Sexy Pink (H. chartacea). with the objective of standardizing the growth regulators for in vivo propagation.

Keywords : heliconia , growth regulators , propagation , sucker production
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Prevalence, Characterisation and Distribution Of Enterococcus Species From Various Clinical Samples In A Teritary Care Hospital in Chennai, India
Authors : Triveda L,Gomathi S

Introduction Enterococci, though considered less virulent are notorious to cause various clinical infections like urinary tract infections, endocarditis, intraabdominal infections pelvic and neonatal infections. Enterococci tend to be the leading causes of nosocomial infections with E.faecium and E.faecalis accounting upto 90% of clinical isolates. Thus proper identification of enterococci to special level is crucial for management and prevention of these bacteria in any healthcare facility. Aims and Objectives To process several clinical samples obtained from various departments in our hospital, for the isolation of enterococcus spp. To know the prevalence of enterococcal infections in our hospital and To speciate the isolated enterococci from clinical samples Materials and Methods A total of 1164 samples were collected from the patients across all age groups. Clinical specimens such as urine, pus, blood, body tissues, peritoneal fluid and Endotracheal aspirate were included in our study. All the specimens brought to the laboratory were subjected to the following tests: A preliminary macroscopic and microscopic examination of specimens. Specimens were processed by inoculation onto 5% sheep blood agar, Macconkey agar, CHROM agar and Thioglycollate and Brain heart infusion broths . The inoculated media were incubated at 37 c overnight and observed for growth. Preliminary identification of Enterococci was made on taking into account of their typical morphology on gram staining, Bile esculin test ,PYR hydrolysis ,Heat and salt tolerance tests. Further identification to species level was achieved with the battery of biochemical reactions, motility and pigment tests Results A total of 1164 samples were collected from the patients and processed for study purpose. Among these only 849 (72.93%) were culture positive and included E.coli, S.aureus, K.pneumoniae, P.aeruginosa and Enterococcus spp. Prevalence of enterococci in clinical samples were 128 (15.07%). Distribution of enterococci in clinical samples, The maximum number of Enterococcal isolates were from urine (54.68%). The rest of the isolates were from pus (32.81%),Blood (5.46%),Tissue (3.12%), Peritoneal fluid (3.12%) each. Endotracheal tube tip (0.78%). Species of enterococci , 97 isolates were identified as E.faecalis (75.78%) and 31 isolates (24.21%) as E.faecium . Conclusion Precise identification of Enterococcus to species level is not only important to assess species specific antimicrobial resistance characteristics but also quintessential to know the epidemiological pattern of enterococcal infection and their significance in causation of human infections.

Keywords : Enterococcus Species
Published in : International Journal of Microbiology & Parasitology

Title : A study on Nutritional status of preschool Children

Malnutrition occurs as a consequence of insufficient food consumption and the repeated appearance of infectious diseases. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the Nutritional status and Socio-economic back ground of the preschool children. The sample of the present study was collected from Chebrolu, (Guntur District), Andhra Pradesh, India. The Sample size is 37 preschool children and the data were collected from Anganwadi centers. Preschool children aged between 1 to 3 years were taken. The present study reveals that there were lower consumption in several macro and micro nutrients intake compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of India. Income levels also influences on their Nutritional Status

Keywords : Preschool Children , Socio- Demographic data , Nutrient intakes , RDA.
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Good governance and solid waste management: An overview of legislative regulations in India
Authors : Vaishali Gupta,Sushma Goel,T. G. Rupa

Across the political and economic spectrum in India society, natural resources play an important role in providing good quality of life to individuals. Management of solid waste has become a major issue affecting nations around the world. Rapid urbanization, increasing population and unplanned development clubbed with the problem of solid waste management in the country is worsening every day. In an effort to build a resource efficient India, it is important to improve waste management practices. With the changing perspective, there is a need to understand the ecological concern and evaluate past policies, frameworks and strategies developed for a sustainable ecosystem. After been neglected for long, SWM is slowly receiving momentum and towns across the country are demonstrating successful models of effective operating systems and infrastructure changes making it possible to monitor waste and make country waste free. The present paper reviews the existing legal policies and profiles available for management of solid waste in India. It makes use of database, legislative policies, programmes and regulations to instill a common approach for management of environment

Keywords : Solid Waste Management , Municipalities , Urban Local Bodies (ULB’s) , Regulatory framework , India
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Health Related Quality of Life Assessment in Patients with Dhs Surgically Treated Pertrochanteric Kyle Fracture Type i, ii
Authors : Mitrevska B,Poposka A,Nikolik-Dimitrova E,Koevska V,Grkova-Miskovska E

Treatment of hip fractures is a major challenge to the health care system and society. Proper treatment of hip fractures in the elderly is still controversial. Objectives: To assess health-related quality of life and to demonstrate any difference following a rehabilitation treatment with kinesitherapy, magnetic therapy, and interferential currents. Material and methods: A quantitative analytical study of 28 patients, all females older than 65. Subjects were divided into two cohorts: 14 patients were treated with kinesitherapy and magnetic therapy, and 14 patients were treated with kinesitherapy and interferential currents. Standardized questionnaires, Score and Rand SF-36 with a total of 36 questions grouped into eight sections, were used for the health-related quality of life assessment. Results: In terms of ‘physical functioning’, the average score indicated a very poor physical functioning. The average score for ‘role limitations due to physical health’ indicated major role limitations due to physical health. The average score for ‘role limitations due to emotional health’ indicated major role limitations due to emotional health. In terms of the ‘energy / fatigue’ parameter results indicated that patients felt a lack of energy which translated as a feeling of fatigue. The average score in ‘emotional wellbeing’ indicated that patients faced lack of emotional wellbeing. The ‘social functioning’ parameter suggested that patients faced problems in their social functioning. The average score in terms of ‘pain’ indicated the existence of pain. And in terms of ‘general health’, the patients considered themselves to be in poor health. Conclusion: The results, although preliminary, indicate the importance of physical therapy in the postoperative period and its impact on the health-related quality of life, as well as the opportunity for a more efficient manner of restoring patient’s condition as it was prior to the fracture

Keywords : kinesitherapy , magnetic therapy , interferential currents , questionnaire , rehabilitation
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Foundation of restoration – pin retained amalgam
Authors : Ambikathanaya .

Dental amalgam has served as an excellent and versatile restorative material for many years. There is still no adequate economic alternative for dental amalgam. Pins are used whenever adequate resistance and retention forms cannot be established with slots.locks and other undercuts only. It is an important adjunt in the restoration of extensive carious teeth. Pins not only helps in binding of amalgam to the tooth but also binds weak tooth structure to the amlgam. This case report present the innovative technique that outlines the reconstruction of severely damaged posterior teeth with missing functional cusp.

Keywords : Dental amalgam
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Karyotypic diversity between rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss, walbaum) and snow trout (schizothorax richardsonii, gray)
Authors : Satesh Vasave,Amita Saxena,S. K. Srivastava

The Cytogenetic studies were carried out in two important coldwater fishes, Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Snow trout (Schizothorax richardsonii), by Giemsa staining. The diploid chromosome number (2n) in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) the modal diploid number was found to be 2n = 60. The karyotype formula obtained consist of 38 metacentric (M), 6 submetacentric (Sm) and 16 telocentric chromosomes (24M + 20 Sm + 16 T). The fundamental arm number was derived to be 208 (FN = 208) and in Snow trout (Schizothorax richardsonii), the modal diploid number was found to be 2n = 96. The karyotype formula obtained consist of 18 metacentric (M), 16 submetacentric (Sm) and 12 subtelocentric and 50 telocentric chromosomes (18 M + 28 Sm + 50 T). The fundamental arm number was derived to be 284 (FN = 284). This is the attempt to compare the wild snow trout obtained from Himalayan stream and farm raised Rainbow trout in these species using conventional staining.

Keywords : Rainbow trout , Snow trout , karyotype
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Tongue is an unusual site of abscess development- an experience of two cases
Authors : Mithilesh Kumar Pandey,Ashish Jaiswal,Shams Alam,Akhil Gupta

Tongue abscess is a rare entity, despite exposure to large number of potential pathogen, relatively resistant to infection. Here in this article we were discussed the two cases of tongue abscess in a young females, with their clinical presentation, differential diagnoses, management and a review of literature

Keywords : Tongue abscess , Glossal abscess , oral tongue , Tongue infection
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : An inventory model for deteriorating items with variable type demand rate and different selling prices
Authors : P. R. Jayashree

Many goods undergo decay or deterioration over time which suffer from depletion by direct spoilage while stored. So decay or deterioration of these goods in stock is a very realistic feature and it is necessary to use this factor in inventory models. In this paper we have developed an order level inventory model for constant rate of deterioration. We have also considered a variable type of demand which behaves differently in the given time horizon. The demand rate is constant for a certain fixed time and then the demand varies linearly with time. This paper also deals with different selling prices in two different time periods. The objective of the model is to find the optimal on-hand inventory by considering the profit function.

Keywords : Deterministic Inventory Model , Deterioration , Profit functions , Two different selling prices , Variable demand rate
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : X-ray study of Kohl stone used in Indian traditional medicine and cosmetics
Authors : Mohammed Aleem Pasha,Babu Nallusamy

Kohl or surma is one such material which is widely used as medicine as well as cosmetics in traditional practices both in rural as well as urban India alike. Kohl stone is one of the major ingredients of kohl. Kohl stone used in the traditional practices is subjected to x-ray study to know the composition. X-ray study reveals that the composition of kohl stone is galena. It has been established by several studies that application of kohl does not cause lead poisoning. But recent scientific studies have reported lead poisoning following traditional lead based medication or kohl application. Similarly, Indian traditional medicinal texts advocates about the application of anjana (kohl) for curing eye diseases. But it has been mentioned that the prolonged and persistent use of anjana may cause conjunctivitis and cataract. Hence, the authors are of the opinion that application of kohl may be beneficial to eyes but still there may be a possibility of adverse effects on prolonged use

Keywords : Kohl stone , Kohl , Surma , Galena , Lead , Anjana
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : The correlation of maternal interleukin 4 and indicators of moderate and severe preeclampsia
Authors : Ana Daneva Markova,Marija Hadzi Lega,Katerina Kasapinova,Anastasika Poposka

Aim The purpose of this research is to study the formation of anti-inflammatory IL-4 cytokine and some indicators of moderate and severe preeclampsia, and normotensive pregnancies in the third trimester of pregnancy Material and methods This is a single center study of 100 women with third trimester pregnancies. All patients gave their informed consent prior to inclusion in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: 50 women with pregnancies complicated by varying degrees of preeclampsia and control group of 50 normotensive pregnancies. Cytokine levels in the serum were measured by the "sandwich" method of solid-phase enzyme immunoassay using double antibody. Statistical data processing was done using the SPSS 13.0 software for Windows. Logistic regression analysis (Binary Logistic Regression) was used to determine the predictive role of the parameters analyzed in the occurrence of severe preeclampsia. Results The obtained values of Pearson- coefficients’ linear correlation (r) indicate that IL-4 negatively correlates with LDH, creatinine, uric acid and proteinuria, and positively correlates with number of blood platelets. IL-4 in severe preeclampsia has a downward trend, between 28-40 weeks of gestation it may be considered a prognostic marker for the development of severe preeclampsia

Keywords : Preeclampsia ,cytokines ,proteinuria ,indicators.
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : A New Way of Doing Ethics
Authors : Gerald C. Hilario

The article exposes and analyzes Michel Foucault’s ideas on ethics. He embarked on this particular analysis by surveying classical Greece, in order to discover some pointers in doing ethics for today. He called it aesthetics of existence, as the ancient Greeks patterned their individual existence based on what they believe as the way towards attaining a beautiful life. The two important principles that were dominant then were care of the self (epimeleia heauton) and know yourself (gnothi heauton). Through his genealogy, it became clear that the ancient people puts more accentuation on the know yourself principle, which lead to what he calls as history’s wrong turning. He meant to look back in ancient period so that the modern subjects can have a glimpse of a possible paradigm they can adopt, which is to have a new ethics. Foucault would have that modern subjects also consider rapport a soi (the self’s relation to itself) as an important component a subject should assume to have a veritable ethical dimension. Finally, Foucault argues that there is a new way of doing ethics which is more in congruence to the situation of the contemporary subject

Keywords : Foucault , genealogy , aesthetics of existence , care of the self , contemporary subject
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Standardization Of Propagation Techniques In Vellerukku (Calotropis procera (Ait) Ait.F)

A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural College and research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Killikulam, Tamil Nadu to standardize the vegetative propagation technique in vellerukku. Three types of cuttings viz., terminal, middle and basal cuttings and three types of growth regulators viz., IBA, NAA @ 500 ppm and 1000ppm alone and in combination and control were used. The result revealed that the terminal cuttings treated with IBA 500 ppm registered the highest rooting percent (86.66 percent and 90.00 percent), number of roots (11.21 and 11.47), root length (23.75 cm and 24.98 cm), shoot length (29.40 cm and 30.64 cm) and survival percentage in the main field (68.13 percent and 71.20 percent) under both the environment viz. open and mist condition were recorded by the terminal cuttings treated with IBA 500 ppm. It was followed by terminal cuttings treated with IBA 1000 ppm. Whereas control (basal cuttings dipped in distilled water) recorded the lowest values of 18.20 and 23.28 percent of rooting, 7.03 and 7.08 number of roots, 16.14 cm and 17.12 cm root length, 19.54 cm and 20.03 cm shoot length 11.62 and 12.47 percent survival in the mainfield under both open as well as mist condition

Keywords : Vellerukku (Calotropis procera)-cuttings-growth regulators-IBA
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Mock Accreditation (An Assessment)
Authors : Raymund B. Gemora

This study aimed to assess mock accreditation prior to the conduct of the formal program survey visit among local counterparts in West Visayas State University, one of the eleven SUCs in region VI – Western Visayas. It likewise aimed to assess mock accreditation when respondents were taken as a whole and when they were classified as to sex, educational qualification and school, determine significant differences in the assessment on mock accreditation when classified as to sex, education attainment and school, identify difficulties encountered during mock accreditation, and present suggestions that could be recommended during mock accreditation. This study utilized the quantitative-qualitative method in describing the assessment on mock accreditation and narrating the difficulties and suggestions on mock accreditation. Ninety-five (95) faculty who were members of the accreditation task forces at WVSU Janiuay were utilized as respondents of the study. Researcher-made and duly-validated instruments such as questionnaire checklists on mock accreditation, difficulties met and suggestions to be recommended were used to gather data. Means and standard deviations were used to describe the assessment on mock accreditation by the respondents. The t-test and ANOVA were used to determine the significant differences on the assessment on mock accreditation as to sex, educational attainment and school. Results revealed that as an entire group and classified as to sex, educational attainment and school, mock accreditation was assessed by the respondents as highly effective. There was a significant difference in the respondents’ assessment on mock accreditation as to sex, but no significant differences existed as to their educational attainment and school.

Keywords : Assessment , Mock Accreditation , Formal Program Survey Visit
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Use of arterial blood gas to determine the severity of esophageal and gastric injury in caustic ingestion cases
Authors : Esmaeil Hajinasrollah,Mohammad Hadizadeh,Hadi Mirhashmi,Hasan Peyvandi,Mohsen Souri,Ghazal Hajinasrollah

Background: Caustic ingestion has a wide range of gastrointestinal injuries form mild to severely fatal complications leading to long-term chronic diseases. Since simultaneous rapid use of various methods is difficult or sometimes impossible for determination of need to urgent surgery, initial use of arterial blood gas (ABG) in patients with caustic ingestion may be useful to determine the severity of the injury. Accordingly in this study the ABG data were assessed and compared with endoscopy and laparatomy results to determine the predictive value of ABG. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study 274 consecutive patients with caustic injury attending to Loghman Hospital, Tehran, Iran since 2006 to 2013 were enrolled. Patients included two groups under surgery and under conservative treatments. In second group, the interval between endoscopy and surgery with arrival time was assessed. Also the initial findings of ABG before treatment, and also the endoscopy and burning grading were determined and compared. Results: The pH and BE alterations were significantly differed between died and alive patients (P=0.001). The endoscopic grading was reversely correlated with HCO3 (P=0.043, r= - 0.274). Also the pH (P=0.041, r= - 0.254) and pCO2 (P=0.006, r= - 0.0342) were reversely correlated to laparatomy grading. Conclusions: Totally, according to the obtained results, it may be concluded that ABG alterations in patients with caustic injuries would result in faster appropriate decision-making for surgery need. For this matter pH less than 7.2 and BE changes more than fifty percent would show the more severe injury that require urgent surgery.

Keywords : Caustic Ingestion , Grading , Arterial Blood Gas
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : The History of Transformation of Russian State System in Turkestan exemplified by the activities of the General-Governor’s Office
Authors : Bakhtiyor Ergashev

The second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century are largely characterized by radical changes in political and social-economic situation in Turkestan. The historical analysis of the above-mentioned period requires multiple approaches while doing research into characteristics of that time. The main cause at the time was the Russian conquest and establishment of laws of the Russian Empire in the territories settled by numerous nationalities with their already formed life styles and economies.

Keywords : Turkestan , general governor’s office , adjudant general , mahkama , devonkhona , Central Asia
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Transverse and longitudinal matrix cracking evolution in composite laminates a damage criterion
Authors : Jean-Luc REBIERE

After numerous numerical simulation on the distribution of the stress field in damage composite cross ply laminates we have elaborate an energy criterion. This energy criterion is based on the computation of some partial parts of the strain energy release rate associated with each damage types and for the three loading mode (mode I (opening mode), mode II (sliding mode) and mode III (tearing mode)). In the related criterion, linear fracture based approach, several hypothesis are used to simplify the damage criterion. The main objective with this approach is to estimate the initiation of transverse and longitudinal cracking mechanisms and the development of the damage.

Keywords : composite laminates , transverse cracking , longitudinal cracking , damage , failure criterion
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Phytochemical, Cytotoxic and Antioxidant activities of leaf extracts of Aristolochia indica (Linn.)
Authors : Saraswati Maharana,Sunita Bhatnagar

Aristolochia indica is a popular medicinal plant in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India. Plant is collected from the wild for its medicinal usage, in the present study medicinal potential of cultivated medicinal plant under standard conditions was explored. Phytochemical analysis revealed presence of flavonoids and tannins like important class of compounds, where as leaf extracts of the plant showed cytotoxic as well as antioxidant potential using brine shrimp mortality and DPPH radical scavenging assays. Acetone extract of the plant showed best cytotoxic and antioxidant potential amongst all the extracts.

Keywords : Aristolochia indica , DPPH , brine shrimp mortality assay , antioxidant
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Pattern of delayed presentation of breast cancer patients: Evidence from Rangpur Medical Hospital, Rangpur, Bangladesh
Authors : Bimal Chandra Roy,Saimun Naher,Md. Shafiul Alam,Md. Abu Hanifa,Prosannajid Sarkar

Background: Bangladesh is facing a high burden of breast cancer disease. It is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death after cervical cancer. Delay in seeking treatment contributes in breast cancer patients’ presentation at the tertiary hospitals when cancer is at an advanced stage and leads to poor prognosis. Late presentation with advanced stage is the common feature of breast cancer patients of Bangladesh. Objectives: The main objective of this study is to explore factors associated with delay in seeking cancer treatment among breast cancer patients at a tertiary care Hospital. Methods: Cross sectional observational study was conducted in the Department of Surgery Rangpur Medical College Hospital, Rangpur from January 2013 to December 2014. Patients who admitted to surgery ward and fulfill inclusion criteria during my study period was included in this study. Sixty two patients with carcinoma breast were included in this study. Thorough search for personal information and reasons behind delayed presentation was made from the patients. Information regarding tumor stage at time of diagnosis was extracted from hospital records and involved pathologic and clinical data. The data was collected in a pre designed data collection sheet. Correlation between personal and social factors and delayed presentation were made to find out the factors responsible for delayed presentation. Results: 36% patients came within 3 months of noticing the lump in breast and 64% delayed more than 3 months. Among 62 patients 76% were from low socioeconomic class, 62% had no formal primary education and 74% took initial treatment from Homeopath and traditional healer. Significant association was found with these patient related factors and delayed presentation. Association was also found between delayed presentation and advanced stage of disease. Conclusion: The findings suggest that 64% women with breast cancer presented late and have significant effect on their disease prognosis. There is a great impact of patient factors (personal and social) on delayed presentation. To reduce patient delay community awareness, health education programs regarding breast cancer should be implemented for target women who are at higher risk of delay.

Keywords : Breast cancer , Pattern , delayed.
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Influence of Social Networking on the Study Habits and Performance of Students in a State University
Authors : Ariel R. Judilla,Raymund B. Gemora

This study aimed to ascertain the influence of social networking on the study habits and academic performance of tertiary students of the West Visayas State University (WVSU) System. It likewise aimed to determine the significant differences on the extent of influence of social networking on the study habits and academic performance of the students when they were grouped as to age, sex, socio economic status and educational attainment of parents as well as to ascertain the significant relationships among the extent of influence of social networking and students’ study habits and their academic performance. This study utilized the descriptive-correlational method in describing how social networking influenced the study habits and academic performance of the students. Two hundred thirty five (235) graduating students taking Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BS InfoTech) at WVSU were utilized as respondents of the study. Researcher-made and duly-validated instruments such as questionnaire checklists that described the influence of social networking and the status of students’ study habits and the WVSU terminal competencies assessment to measure their academic performance were used to gather data. Means and standard deviations were used to describe the influence of social networking on the study habits and academic performance of the students. The t-test and ANOVA were used to assess the significant differences on the influence of social networking on the respondents’ study habits and academic performance and Pearson’sr correlation was used to test the significant relationships among the extent of influence of social networking, students’ study habits and their academic performance. Results revealed a high extent of influence of social networking on the respondents regardless of age, sex, socio economic status, and educational attainment of their parents. The status of the students’ study habits was also high while their level of academic performance was basic. There were significant differences in the level of academic performance of students when classified as to age, socio economic status and educational attainment of parent while significant relationship existed between the extent of influence of social networking and the status of the study habits of the respondents and between the respondents’ extent of influence of social networking and the level of their academic performance.

Keywords : Social Networking , Influence , Performance , Study Habits
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Purification and characterisation of two alpha-glucosidases from termite workers macrotermes bellicosus (termitidae: macrotermitinae)
Authors : Kouassi Hubert Konan,Siaka Binaté,Assoi Yapi Désiré Patrice Yapi,Gbocho Serge Elvis Ekissi,E. J. Parfait Kouadio,Lucien Patrice Kouamé

In present study, purification and characterization of two alpha-glucosidases from termite workers Macrotermes bellicosus (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) were conducted. The purification procedure consisted of anion-exchange, gel filtration, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The enzymes designated alpha-glucosidases A1 and A2 had native molecular weights of approximately 191.23± 0.7 and 140.39± 1.2 kDa, respectively, and there functioned as monomeric structures. The two isoforms isolated exhibited maximal alpha-glucosidase activity pH at 5.6. Alpha-glucosidases A1 and A2 hydrolytic activities were maximal at 50 and 45°C, respectively. The purified enzymes pH stabilities were in the range of 5.0-6.0. The enzymes readily hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucoside, maltose, maltodextrins and required strictly alpha-gluco configuration for activity. They cleaved glucose-glucose alpha-(1–2) linkages better than alpha-(1–4), alpha-(1–1), alpha-(1–3) and β-(1–6) linkages. The catalytic efficiency (Vmax/ KM) values for p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucoside, were respectively 277.75±9.2 and 59.51±4, for alpha-glucosidases A1 and A2. Both alpha-glucosidases were inhibited by sulfhydryl-binding reagents. The physiological role of the two alpha-glucosidases in the digestive tract of the termite could be the digestion of di-and oligosaccharides derived from starch. The enzymes could be used as a tool in the structural analysis of D-glucose containing oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins, glycolipids and starch.

Keywords : Enzyme purification , characterization , alpha-glucosidase , Macrotermes bellicosus , termite.
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : LCUP Administrators and Teachers Training Needs Assessment: Basis for Developing A Faculty Development Program
Authors : Isabel Guevara,Alvin V. Nuqui

The main concern of this study is to appraise the training needs of teachers and administrators of La Consolacion University Philippines (LCUP). Researchers utilized the descriptive–survey method to determine the expressed needs of College Department and Basic Education Department of LCUP. The tool for the administrators determined the level of needs for the following management skills and training needs: Leadership, Motivation, Employee development, Interpersonal communication, Business communication, Taking corrective action, Employee Selection and Orientation, Problem Solving, Performance Management, Time Management and Computer and Technical skills. As a result, it has revealed that Administrators have the highest need for developing skills on Motivation and Interpersonal communication while moderate need was recorded on Learning Computer and Technical skills. On the other hand, both Basic Education and College teachers perceived that their high and moderate needs was inclined on the following: Student discipline and behavior problems, Student counseling, Teaching students with special learning needs, Content and performance standards in subject field/s, ICT skills for teaching, and Knowledge and understanding of instructional practices in subject field/s, Student assessment practices, Classroom management, Teaching in a multicultural setting, School management and administration and Knowledge and understanding of main subject field/s. With this reason, it was recommended that developmental plan needs to be fully prepared that would incorporate the results of the training needs assessment survey and the plan should include specific activities for the administrators and the teachers.

Keywords : Training Needs Assessment , Faculty Development Program , Administrators , Teachers
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : An Open Source Protection Method Implementation to Guard Unauthenticated Access to Network Infrastructure of La Consolacion University Philippines
Authors : Joseph D. Espino,Alvin V. Nuqui

The major focus of the study is to implement an open source firewall technology system intended for La Consolacion University Philippines (LCUP). The major concern of the project is to prevent an unauthenticated access to the Network Infrastructure of LCUP. The system is capable to detect, monitor, control and filter incoming and outgoing packets. A PfSense, is an open source network firewall and free distribution, FreeBSD customizable, having a Web interface was used. Two (2) PC-based routers were installed for two (2) separated campuses connected via VLAN. The study was found “very acceptable” based on the following criteria: data integrity, data confidentiality, non-repudiation and reliability. This shows that the system is highly recommendable for implementation

Keywords : unauthenticated access , open source , FreeBSD , PfSense , packets , La Consolacion University Philippines
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Extent of information and communication technology utilization in teaching: its influence on student's academic performance
Authors : Khristian S. Liwanag

This study wanted to investigate how the extent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Utilization in teaching influences students ' academic performance among small, medium and large type of school in Public Secondary Schools in District 2 of the DepED Division of Bulacan as basis for program enhancement. The simple descriptive survey research methods were employed in exploring the influence between variables. Frequency distribution and weighted mean were also engaged to describe the availability of hardware and software resources. Frequency count and percentage were also used in presenting the data on student-computer ratio and internet access. The extent of utilization of ICT in teaching towards students ' academic performance in Math, Science and English subject was statistically analyzed using Regression analysis to determine the best predictor among the independent variable (IV) to the dependent variable (DV). In this study, it was found that the extent of teachers ' ICT utilization in teaching did not serve as significant predictors of the respondents' academic performance and that there is no sufficient evidence to say that there is a significant relationship between independent and dependent variables. Then the model of no effects can be observed or that the obtained insignificant values were due to chance alone or other extraneous variables or factors. An ICT Program was also derived from the findings of the study that would benefit the needs of the Department of Education in Bulacan when it comes to ICT utilization

Keywords : ICT , Teaching Influences and Academic Performance
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Antecedents and consequences of teenage pregnancy: a phenomonological study
Authors : Jenny D. Meneses,Claudio T. Saratan

The purpose of this study is to describe the Antecedents and Consequences of Teenage Pregnancy. The participants were 10 Teenage Mothers aged 14-19 that are selected purposively in terms of undergoing teenage pregnancy in Barangay Bambang, Bulakan, Bulacan and shared their lived experiences pertaining to this stage of their life. Phenomenological type of Qualitative Research was utilized in this study. The researcher utilized a guided questionnaire that was based on literature which has been validated by 3 professionals. The main data source typically is in-depth conversations, with the researcher and informants as co-participants. Data was collected through tape recording. After the data collection, the researcher analyzed and interpreted the information obtained using IPA Methodology (Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis).The findings revealed that socio-economic phenomenon caused (antecedents) the participants to experience teenage pregnancy are Teenage Pregnancy is associated with poverty including low family income, crowded community, semi squatter dwelling type and school disengagement. Prevalence of family problems/conflicts including ruptured relationship with parents, broken family and limited parental guidance. Peer influences including hanging out with wrong barkadas, involvement in drinking sprawl and alcohol misuse. The consequences of teenage pregnancy that the teenage mothers experienced are family problems including financial problems, nourishment of the child and early responsibilities. They also experienced discrimination acts like feedback about early pregnancy and topic of rumors. Teenage mother’s unmet goals are to go abroad, to finish their studies and to support their family. The coping mechanisms of the teenage mothers are getting family support, acceptance of the phenomenon, getting support from the husband’s family and finding employment. The Sociological Propositions that evolved from the experiences of the young adolescents who experienced teenage pregnancy as a social phenomenon is caused, and therefore it can be avoided if the causative factors can be brought to for, studied and a relevant social program can be formulate to mitigate teenage pregnancy and its consequences. To conclude, Socio-economic phenomenon plays an important role in causing teenage pregnancy. The results of the study became the basis for developing guidelines to mitigate teenage pregnancy. The study recommended that the Government should focus on improving economic opportunities to low-income families to improve their life. Teenagers need proper counseling and support from their families.

Keywords : Teenage , Pregnancy , Antecedents , Consequences , Phenomenological
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Tracer study of employment of bshrm graduates of the la consolacion university philippines from 2011-2013
Authors : Flordeliza P. Fronda,Fe Corazon C. Villanueva

The study determined Employability of La Consolacion University (LCUP) Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management Graduates for Academic Year 2011 to 2013. The study used the survey research method. For the purpose of the study only those presently employed were included in the survey. The instrument of the study was designed by the researchers based on the variables of the conceptual framework with other data such as name, address, contact number, course, and year graduated. Employment potential of the graduates was described by their job movement and the relevance of their positions to their field of study, Hotel and Restaurant Management. The study revealed HRM graduates are employable both locally and abroad. They enter international employment after acquiring experience in the country. Some even got lucky abroad as soon as completing their college degree Academic achievers in college are mobile in their employment. They gain more knowledge and skills by moving jobs in different hospitality industry companies, the graduates have quite a good perception of the HRM course. They were confident that they have learned the relevant hospitality industry knowledge and skills and were able to find jobs that are related to their course and The HRM curriculum is in place, but it needs enhancement. Firstly in terms of including in the practicum program a variety of hospitality industry companies that the on the job trainees may access to gain more skills and knowledge. Secondly in terms of more opportunities for in- or off-campus skills development programs related to the major subjects

Keywords : Employment , Graduates
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Hepatoprotective and histopathological Activity of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of stem of Aloe vera Linn (Ghee gangwar) against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats
Authors : Hena .,Pallavi Tiwari,Mayank Srivastava,Saurav Ghoshal

Aim of the study: Aloe vera is a medicinal plant widely distributed in the various parts of India. Aloe Vera is a major medicinal plant when it comes to treating and protecting the skin. Used externally, it is very effective on burns and sunburn, as well as a variety of skin diseases (eczema, pruritus, psoriasis, acne) – it is extremely constructive and protective. Root contains resinous matter and fat. It is used as Stomachic hepato-biliary affections etc. The present research was aimed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of stem using in vivo models to validate the folkloric use of the plant. Materials and methods: The hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of stem were studied on male albino wistar rats, liver damage induced by paracetamol (2.5gm/kg, p.o.) by monitoring biochemical parameters. Various biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts in serum like glutamic pyruvic transaminase (sGPT), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT) and serum alkaline phosphatase (sALP), total bilirubin (sB), total protein, total cholesterol and histopathological changes in liver were also studied along with silymarin (100mg/kg, p.o.) as standard hepatoprotective agents were determined to assess the effect of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of stem of Aloe vera (100 and 200 mg/kg) on the paracetamol induced hepatic damage. Results: The phytochemical investigation of the extracts showed presence of carbohydrates, proteins, steroids and flavonoids. Pre-treatment of the rats with ethanol and aqueous extracts prior to paracetamol administration caused a significant reduction in the values of sGOT, sGPT, sALP and sB (P<0.01) almost comparable to the silymarin. The hepatoprotective was confirmed by histopathological examination of the liver tissue of control and treated animal.Conclusions: The results indicate that this plant possesses potential hepatoprotective properties and has therapeutic potential for the treatment of liver diseases.

Keywords : Aloe vera Linn. Paracetamol , hepatoprotective activity , silymarin , histopathology
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Smile ethetics in dentisrtry
Authors : C. Sabarigirinathan,K. Vinayagavel,A. Meenakshi,R. SelvaRani,M. S. Jayanthy,K. Usha,P.A. Manojkumar,C. Selvamani,A. Gowri Shankar

The perception of aesthetics varies from person to person and is influenced by personal experiences and social environment. Classical cultures of Greece and Rome based their standards of beauty on set rules of proportion and composition.

Keywords : Beauty , esthetics , smile design , smile proportions
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Cytological characterization of Capsicum annuum var. paprika (tatassi) {Solanaceae] cultivated in Owerri, eastern Nigeria
Authors : Egbucha Kelechukwu Chris ,Ejiogu Mary Chinenye

Cytological investigation of Capsicum annuum Lin. Var. paprika (tatassi) cultivatedin Owerri, eastern Nigeria was undertaken in order to generate cytological information on its karyological profile which could be factored into decisions pertaining to appropriate crop improvement regimes for the crop. Ripe fruits were obtained from three small Holding farms within Owerri metropolis. Seeds of fruits were extracted, air-dried and processed for chromosomal investigation. Root-tips were pretreated in 0.05% colchicine and fixed in acetic ethanol. A somatic chromosome number of 2n= 24 was after squashing in 2% acetic orcein. Further karyological findings showed that chromosome size ranged from medium to large with a mean of 5.45µm. Metacentrics dominated the karyotype (75%) while remaining were submetacentrics and subtelocentrics. A coefficient of variation (CV) value of 10.08 lent credence to the inference that ample karyotypic variability exists in this crop to ensure positive response to selection and/or intra-varietal hybridization methods of crop improvement

Keywords : : Cytogenetic , intra-varietal , exotic , asymmetrical , phylogenetic.
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of amlodipine and rosuvastatin
Authors : Sheetal Buddhadev,Raval Kashyap,Sandip Buddhadev

Fast Dissolving Tablets (FDT)) are most accepted and exploited for the drug delivery for the patients who are having difficulty with swallowing i.e., mainly pediatric's and Geriatric’s. Amlodipine besylate (ADB) is an anti-hypertensive and it is also used in many Coronary artery diseases, Whereas Rosuvastatin Calcium (RSC) is an anti-hyperlipidemia that prevents of Atheroma. The aim of the paper was to formulate a combined oral dosage form of amlodipine besylate and rosuvastatin calcium into fast dissolving tablet using three super disintegrants such as Croscarmellose Sodium (CCS), Cross povidone (CP), Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG) at various concentrations to enhance the disintegration and dissolution of ADB and RSC to improve bioavailability of the drugs. The tablets were prepared by using direct compression method and evaluated for weight variations, Hardness, Friability, Wetting time, Disintegration time and Dissolution study. Prepared tablets are subject to FT-IR Study for Characterization and compatibility study. No Chemical interaction between drug and excipients were indicated in the FT-IR. Disintegration and dissolution profiles decreases with addition of super disintegrating agents like Croscarmellose Sodium (CCS), Cross povidone (CP), Sodium Starch Glycolate (SSG). Among all the formulation FD6 with CP in 10% and SSG 5% Concentration found to be best in drug release profile. The results showed that super disintegrants used in combinations shows better disintegrating property. Among all formulations, promising formulation FD6 showed good wetting time (26 sec), fastest disintegration time (55 sec) and maximum drug release of 99.89% within 5 minutes.

Keywords : Fast Dissolving Tablets Amlodipine besylate Rosuvastatin Calcium Super disintegrants Direct compression method
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Fertigation studies in tomato
Authors : Sundharaiya Kalanjiyam,Karuthamani Manickam

A field trial on fertigation studies on tomato was conducted at the Department of Vegetable Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Coimbatore. The experiment include totally seven treatments viz., Soil application of normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF (T1), Soil application of normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF and drip irrigation (T2), drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF (T3), drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 75 percent RDF (T4), drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 100 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea (T5), drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 75 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea (T6) and drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 50 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea (T7). The experiment was laidout in a randomized block design and replicated thrice. The results of the study revealed that drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 100 per cent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea significantly increased the plant height, dry matter production, leaf area index, total chlorophyll content, number of fruits per plants, fruit weight and yield per plant. It was followed by drip fertgation with water soluble fertilizers at 75 percent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea and drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF using Urea, Single Super Phosphate and Muriate of Potash. Similarly, the same treatment also recorded increased values for quality traits viz., TSS, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content of fruits. Higher nutrient uptake and fertilizer use efficiency were observed by drip fertigation with water soluble fertilizers at 75 perent RDF using MAP, Multi K and Urea and drip fertigation with normal fertilizers at 100 percent RDF using Urea, Single Super Phosphate and Muriate of Potash.

Keywords : Drip fertigation-tomato-yield-quality-fertilizer use efficiency
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : State kallikrein-kinin system in pregnant women groups infectious risk
Authors : Gulnora T. Rabbimova, N.Q. Muhamadiev

The article describes the performance of enzymes KKS infectious risk during pregnancy. A significant reduction of prekallikrein and kallikrein, and increase of TATA (total antitriptic activity), BAEE (N-benzoyl-1-arginine ethyl ether) kininase is shown that can be used as a marker of inflammation in pregnant women infectious risk

Keywords : pregnancy , infectious complications , enzymes of kallikrein-kinin system
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Enhancing the Role of Horn of African Entrepreneurs in the Current Global Business Environment
Authors : Mengsteab Tesfayohannes,Mussie T. Tessem,Sebhatleab Tewolde

This study discusses the perceptions, practices and challenges of African entrepreneurs in the currently dynamic andinterconnected global business environment. In doing so, it develops a conceptual framework taking into account the objectiveof the paper, the African context as well as anecdotal facts based recommendations that are intended to help Africanentrepreneurs how to react and function within the interactions of the international business environment. Implications of thesefindings and future research directions are discussed

Keywords : Africa , horn of Africa , entrepreneurs , global , business , environment
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Brain Tumor with Pregnancy A Rare Entity
Authors : Ruchi Sinha,Ravishankar Prasad

A case of brain tumor with pregnancy in third trimester is reported. The literature is reviewed to show the effect of pregnancy on these tumors, the method of diagnosis and management. The presence of a brain tumor in pregnancy is a state of a diagnosis of scarce presentation in the medical practice. A high clinical suspicion on the part of the obstetrician is the key to timely diagnosis as the symptoms of headache, vomiting and blurred vision are often encountered in pregnancy with or without pre-eclampsia.

Keywords : Brain tumor , glioma , astrocytoma
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Carbon Nanotubes- the Holy Grail in Anticancer Therapy
Authors : Varsha Tripathi,Manoj Kumar Mishra,Pallavi Tiwari,Mayank Srivastava,Saurav Ghoshal

Carbon nanotubes(CNT) are allotropes of carbon with cylindrical nanostructures. They can be visualized as a sheet of carbon atoms rolled up into a tube with a diameter of around tens of nanometers. They have electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical properties. There are two types of CNTs, single walled CNTs and multi walled CNTs. The multiwalled CNTs are formed by several concentric layers of rolled graphite. It has good adsorption properties which can detect some chemicals and biological agents. It is used to transport drug as well as proteins, DNA, RNA, into cells. The carbon network of shell is considered to be a result of the arrangement of carbon atoms in graphite sheets. Some properties of CNTs such as ease of cellular uptake, high drug loading, thermal ablation, among others, render them useful for cancer therapy. Cancer is one of the most challenging diseases of modern times because its therapy involves distinguishing normal healthy cells from affected cells. CNTs may prove to be the Holy Grail in cancer therapy because phenomena such as EPR, allow CNTs to distinguish normal cells from affected ones,. Considerable work has been done on CNTs as drug delivery systems over the last two decades. However, concerns over certain issues such as biocompatibility and toxicity have been raised and warrant extensive research in this field.

Keywords : Carbon Nanotubes , Anticancer , SWCNT , MWCNT , Drug Delivery
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Demographic profile, belief, environmental support and involvement in small business among indigenous people in gambella
Authors : Oman Amulu Akway,Emerlita Naguiat

This study analyzed the effects of demographic profile, belief about entrepreneurial characteristics and the perceived environmental support to entrepreneurial activities affecting involvement in small business among indigenous people in Gambella. The effects were measured based on the number of indigenous people involved in small business and its significant difference when grouped according to demographic profile, belief about entrepreneurial characteristics and the perceived environmental support to entrepreneurial activities. It was found out that there is a significant relationship between the demographic profile of the indigenous people in terms of gender, ethnicity, type of business and experience in business and their involvement in small business. However, age, civil status, educational background, religion and family size showed no significant relationship. Note worth taking also is the significant difference in the involvement of the indigenous people in small business when grouped according to their belief about entrepreneurial characteristics in terms of innovativeness, locus of control, need for achievement, pro-activeness, risk-taking and assertiveness. There is a significant difference in the involvement of the indigenous people in small business when grouped according to environmental support to the entrepreneurial activities like socio-cultural and technology and not significant in terms of politics, socio-cultural and legal

Keywords : : Demographic Profile , Belief , Environmental Support , Small Business , Indigenous People
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : The emotional stability and emotional maturity of fourth year teacher education students of the bulacan state university
Authors : Alodia DG. Zapata

Emotion plays an important role in establishing camaraderie and helps deal with situations that test an individual’s patience. However, for students, classroom environment together with peer-pressure and on-the-job training increases the chance of getting stressed. Maturity and stability has been differentiated to provide better alternatives to increasing risks of being unable to cope with difficult situations. While it is believed that emotional stability leads to emotional maturity, this common view is to be tested in different areas: self-collected determined calm average sensitive feisty and neurotic. Emotional maturity on the other hand, is measured as: sign of good emotional maturity sign of having hindrances if they fail to address issues sign of having troubles in life. Descriptive survey research methodology is used, specifically the correlation study, since it attempts to establish the perceived difference between the emotional stability and emotional maturity. The level of emotional stability is measured using the 30-item Emotional Stability Questionnaire (ESQ), emotional maturity is measured using the 20-item Emotional Maturity Questionnaire (EMQ). As far as emotional stability is concerned that existed among the fourth year students, these traits are being average, calm and sensitive. Twenty-five of the respondents are manifesting a good sign of emotional maturity, having standard deviation of 4.43 in the test. Having a ttest value of -2.9304 at 62 degrees of freedom and a p-value lower than 0.05 (P=0.0047), there is a significant difference that existed between the respondents’ perceived level of emotional stability and their perceived level of emotional maturity.

Keywords : Emotional Stability , Emotional Maturity , Education Students
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Epidemiological Studies on Urinary Schistosmiasis in Ile Oluji/oke Igbo Local Government Area of Ondo State
Authors : Oluwaremilekun Ajakaye

This study was carried out to determine the current prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in relation to epidemiological factors in two communities in Ile Oluji/Oke Igbo Local Government Area (LGA) of Ondo state. A total of 760 individuals comprising 356 males and 404 females were examined and of the number examined, 126(16.6%) were infected with S. haematobium. Oke Igbo community had more infected individuals than Ile Oluji. Infection peaked at individuals in the age groups 10-19 and 20-29 years. The secondary school category with respect to the highest level of education had the highest prevalence. High prevalence was recorded among individuals who had knowledge of schistosomiasis and have had prior infection. Statistical analysis showed that age, sex, highest level of education, knowledge and history of schistosomiasis infection were significant demographic and socio economic factors. These findings show that the study area is endemic to urinary schistosomiasis despite school children chemotherapy.

Keywords : Epidemiology , urinary schistosomiasis , prevalence , ondo state , nigeria
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Impact of National Government's Budgetary support, School Climate and Faculty Commitment on the Productivity of State Universities and Colleges in Region III
Authors : Enrique G. Baking

The main objective of the study is to determine the national governments budgetary support, school climate and faculty commitment as they relate to the productivity of State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) in Region III. The findings of the study revealed that an insignificant trend is evident by and across institutions in respect to the total budget. A significant trend over the last five years is shown in personal services and capital outlay. The area of MOOE, research and extension do not have significant increase or decrease in the budget for the last five years. The null hypothesis to the effect that there was no significant increase/decrease in the distribution of the budget according to the five budget areas is partially confirmed in the study. A significant increase/decrease is evident in personal services and capital outlay but not in MOOE, research and extension. Not a single institution exhibits a significant increase or decrease in the cost of education per student for the last five years. Budgetary support particularly capital outlay positively relates with civil engineering. Personal services positively relate with mechanical engineering and research budget positively relates with Bachelor of Elementary Education

Keywords : National government , Budgetary support , School climate , Faculty commitment , Productivity , State Universities and Colleges
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : University governance - case of four state universities in the philipines
Authors : Marwin dela Cruz

Participatory university governance involves clear understanding of university administrators in the different aspects of university governance. The presence of such participatory practice is a condition that promotes harmonious and productive working environment in the academic community. By employing qualitative approach, this study reveals to what the administrators of state universities and colleges of the Philippines partake in university governance. The concepts of governance of the administrators reflect the need for sense of direction to address the organization coupled with the guidance on the existing rules and direction. Evidence from four state universities and colleges demonstrate how the concept of participation improves the level of performances of state universities. In this way, administrators manage the university and do the necessary action without hindering the institution’s ability either to meet its regulatory responsibilities, or to respond properly to a fast moving environment.

Keywords : state universities and colleges , university governance , participatory university governance , Philippines
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Improvement of vitamin-d deficient rachitis treatment in children
Authors : Shoira M. Ibatova,Nurali Q. Muhamadiev,Shohruh O. Axmedov,Sayyora N. Muhamadieva

INTRODUCTION: Significant changes of the highest fatty acids content were revealed in the blood serum in children ill with rachitis. The depth of changes of the highest fatty acids content depended on the degree of the pathologic process severity. The revealed disturbances of the highest fatty acids content was corrected by means of apricot oil and the results of therapy were presented. Efficacy of the presented method of treatment in children with rachitis was shown in optimal doses of apricot oil. METHODS: 67 patients ill with Vitamin-D deficient rachitis and 10 practically healthy children of the control group were enrolled in the study. The 1st degree of the disease was diagnosed in 30 (44,8%) and the 2nd degree in 37 (55,2%) children.The content of the highest fatty acids in blood serum of the studied patients was determined by means of gas- liquid chromatography. For identification of separated methyl aether fatty acids the method of “witness” and “sorbentsorbat”method based on structural group contents were used. RESULTS: 67 babies were studied. In children with Vitamin-D deficient rachitis the content of such fatty acids as palmitinic, strearic and linolic acids increases and palmitoleinic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids decreases and that is the evidence of lipid exchange disturbance in rachitis. It motivates the necessity to correct lipid exchange in this pathology and to add vegetable oils. In order to eliminate dysmetabolism of the highest fatty acids in children with rachitis it is recommended to administer apricot oil as therapeutic agent. CONCLUSION: In order to eliminate the highest fatty acids dysmetabolism in children ill with rachitis it is recommended to administer apricot oil that results in restoration of the highest fatty acids metabolism and provides high therapeutic effect.

Keywords : Apricot oil , efficacy , fatty acids , improvement , rachitis , treatment.
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : A comparative study of fluorescent staining and Ziehl Neelsen’s staining for detection of acid fast bacilli in sputum in a tertiary care hospital in Mangalore.
Authors : Jagadeesha K,Vidya Pai

Introduction: Our country has a high burden of tuberculosis (TB) with a prevalence of 211 cases per 100,000 populations. With limited resources, the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) relies primarily on smear microscopy for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB). Material and methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months. Sputum samples were collected and processed for AFB detection by Ziehl Neelson staining and Fluorochrome method. Results: A total of 861 samples were included of which by fluorescent staining 114 (13.24%) samples were positive and by Ziehl-Neelsen’s staining 89 (10.33%) samples were positive. Fluorescent staining method detected twenty five more sputum smear acid fast bacilli than Ziehl –Neelsen’s staining method. Conclusions: Our study showed that the fluorescent staining method has better sensitivity than Ziehl-Neelsen’s in detection of acid fast bacilli. Fluorescent staining detects acid fast bacilli in low densities. Fluorescent method is more reliable and easy whenever dealing with large number of samples.

Keywords : Fluorescent Staining , Acid Fast Bacilli
Published in : International Journal of Microbiology & Parasitology

Title : Biocontrol of post-harvest fungal diseases of Citrus scinensis (Sweet orange) using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) and Chromolaena odorata
Authors : Edward Ntui Okey

Post-harvest deterioration is a major problem of sweet orange (C. sinensis) production in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.Miicrobial infection of the fruits is mainly responsible. The present study was therefore, carried out to identify andbiologically control the micro-organisms responsible for orange fruit rot during storage. Aqueous leaf extracts ofAzadirachta indica and Chromolaena odorata were used as biological agents against fungal isolates. Samples of rottenorange fruits were collected from different markets across the state. Four fungal isolates (Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillusniger, Aspergillus flavus and Cladosporium herbarum ) obtained from naturally infected fruits were confirmed to be causalagents through pathogenicity testing. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed higher amounts of polyphenols,flavonoids, saponin, tannin and alkaloids in A. indica compared to C. odorata. In-vitro investigations showed that 30%concentration of A. indica leaf extracts caused highest mycelial growth inhibition of the four pathogens (70, 75, 83 and 88%respectively) compared to the control, while extracts of C. odorata caused relatively lower inhibition of mycelial growth(50, 61, 61, 62% respectively) at the same concentration. Percentage inhibition increased with increase in extractconcentration. These results indicate that aqueous leaf extract of A. indica is a better biocontrol agent of post-harvestorange fruit fungal diseases. Further studies are ongoing to test the validity of these results in the field.

Keywords : Sweet orange , spoilage , fungi , leaf extract
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : A Study of Metabolic Syndrome in the Rural Population of Haryana...
Authors : Shruti Seth,Suvarna Prasad

Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is the clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. It is estimated that the burden due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) will markedly increase in developing countries particularly in the Indian subcontinent. Because both under nutrition and over nutrition are seen simultaneously in developing countries, the double burden of diseases makes the situation more difficult. The study included 100 subjects of the age group 20 -60 yrs attending the OPD of MMIMSR. The cross-sectional study was done for a period of 3 months from the month of January 2011 to April 2011. Simple Random sampling methods was adopted for the selection of subjects. According to NCEP definition, maximum overall percentage of MS was 20.5% and gender specific for males and females was 30.1% and 26.7% respectively. Prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome has shown a rapid rise in developing countries in the past few decades and has led to increased risk of CVD and consequent morbidity and mortality.

Keywords : Metabolic Syndrome , NCEP ATP III , Rural Population , Cardiovascular disease
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Factorial Design and Optimization of the weight of the cube (kg) in Concrete Mixture
Authors : Ifeanyi Ejikeme,Chukwuemeka Ezeliora

This research work focused on the design, and optimization of the concrete mixture using factorial analysis. Data were collected for the concrete mixture proportion to observe the ratio of the mixture content. Factorial design analyses were used to design the concrete mixture. It was also used to optimize the concrete mixture of the variables. The results were discussed and were also recommended for concrete mixture.

Keywords : Optimization , Factorial Design , Concrete Mix , Response Surface Modelling and Analysis of Variance
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Examining the link between organizational justice and counterproductive work behaviour
Authors : Monanu Oge G.,Okoli Ifeanyi E.,Adibe Charles Gozie

In this research, organizational justice was detailed to show and to observe its relationship with its counterproductive work behavior. The research takes total of one hundred and ninety eight (198) workers working in Anambra State Civil Service Awka. It served as the respondents in this study. Cochran, (1963) sampling technique was employed to get the sample size and the research questionnaire was used to draw fact information from the respondents. Participants were randomly selected and elicit by using sampling method. In the population of 198 respondents 83 (that is 41.92%) of the total population were males while 115 (that is 58.08%) of the total population were females. Organisational Justice (OJ) was evaluated by the use of a 20-items scale while the counterproductive work behavior (CWB) was evaluated with a 25- items measuring scale. The study results revealed that mean values of the organisational justice gives a positive significant relationship results in the study with its counterproductive work behavior.

Keywords : Organisational Justice ,Counterproductive behavior
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Historical-legal analyze of main forms of criminal legal proceedings in ancient india and china
Authors : Khayriev Nodirjon Isroilovich

In this article author had searched the historical stages of the organization and evolution of the criminal proceeding in the Ancient India, China states by direct analyze of the procession legal sources. In the article author had analyzed by the historical-legal aspects the specifics of the developing of the criminal proceeding relations in the Ancient India, China states

Keywords : criminal , legal proceedings , ancient , india , china
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Analysis and Experimental Design of Slump Dry Concrete Mix in Warm and Hot Humid Zones, South Eastern Nigeria
Authors : John U. Ezeokonkwo,Chukwuemeka Daniel Ezeliora,F. O. Ezeokoli

In the research work, the use of factorial mathematical model was adopted for the slumps dry of concrete mix in a Hot and Warm humid zones as functions of quantity of cement, water-cement ratio and quantity of aggregates, the composition of the concrete mix was optimized by varying the independent factors (variables) for various seasons within the zones through Box Wilson’s composite mathematical method. The optimum value for factors X1 and X2 and X3 and X4 were obtained for the Hot and Warm humid zones as Y2 = 106.8221. The electronic (computer) manipulations of the data generated from the experiments, the following graphs (1 – 8) were generated for a better understanding of interactions between the factors and value generated as a result

Keywords : Concrete mix , matlab , Climatic Conditions , factorial design , Quality , Production
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Factorial Analysis of Concrete Production in Hot and Warm Humid Zones in South East Nigeria
Authors : John Ezeokonkwo,Felix Uche Ikechukwu

This study considers the quality of concrete produced in warm and hot zones of south east, Nigeria. The quality of concrete mixture is of inevitable concern to all stakeholders in the construction industry in the zones when the climatic conditions of the zones are considered. Absence of National standards, environmental and climatic conditions and other factors are the main factors that affect the quality of concrete produced in the area. The affected mix ratio is examined and all the prevailing construction/production practices are considered. All necessary measures for improving the quality of concrete produced are surveyed considering the relationships between various variables used in the mixture. Three major factors (variables) that are found to be influencing the quality of concrete in the south east, Nigeria. The absence or lack of implementing the existing building code, climatic conditions in the zones and types of construction materials available, all remain the major variable influencing the quality of present concrete production in the zones of south east, Nigeria.

Keywords : Concrete , Climatic Conditions , Quality , Mix Design , Production
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Selective evaluation of insecticides to control tomato pests to Trichogramma chilonis (Trichogrammatidae Hymenopthera) adult survival

The effect of the insecticides avermectin (abamectin) and some organophosphates (chlorpyriphos, malathion, quinolphos, triazophos), oxadiazine (indoxacarb), and spinosyn (spinosad) as well as with pyrethroids (cypermethrin) on laboratory and field adult populations of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis (Hyn: Trichogrammatidae) was evaluated under laboratory conditions, using the standard tests (residue test on glass tubes) described by IOBC. When tested on the adult populations of the parasitoids chlorpyriphos, malathion, quinolphos, triazophos proved to be most lethal insecticides on the adult survival of the parasitoid. Similarly abamectin and cypermethrin were also found to be harmful on the adult survival of the parasitoid. Indoxacarn and spinosad was found to be least harmful on the adult survival of the egg parasitoid

Keywords : biological control , egg parasitoid , Hymenopthers , insecticides , natural enemies , Trichogrammatidae
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Extraction of enzymes from potato peels substrate using bacillus megatarium.
Authors : Ashish Joshi,Raval Kashyap

Here the work contains Extraction of Enzymes from Potato Peels Substrate Using Bacillus Megatarium. The work was done to study the growth habit of microbes on standard media, standardize the conditions for growth of microbes using potato peel & and measure the efficacy of filtrate as enzyme source. Experimental details were like Design-CRD, 3 replication & 8 treatments. Bacterial strains were used like B1 = B. megatarium, B2 = No bacteria, Incubation temperature T1 = 370C , T2 = Room Temperature (R.T.) and Incubation Hours H1 = 24 , H2 = 48. Bacterial strain B. megatarium consume maximum amount of starch (96.27 mg/g) as compare to other treatments. Amylase and protease enzymes activity also found in highest in treatment 4 (T4) and All the results were within accepted criteria.

Keywords : Enzymes , Bacillus Megatarium
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Impact of Infrastructure on Economic Growth of Pakistan
Authors : Armughana Tanveer,Natasha Manan

Nutmeg, oregano and dark soy are among household spices which are consumed in large quantities globally. This study evaluated the mutagenic and genotoxic potential of nutmeg, oregano and dark soy using the SOS Chromotest on Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. The concentrations of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 g/ 10 mL distilled water of nutmeg and oregano, and 10, 25, 50 and 100 % dark soy were utilized for the Ames test while six concentrations of two-fold dilutions of 1g of nutmeg and oregano and 100% of dark soy were utilized for SOS Chromotest. The result of the Ames test showed mutagenicity of nutmeg and oregano but not of dark soy, while the SOS Chromotest results showed genotoxicity of nutmeg, oregano and dark soy. E. coli PQ37 system showed better sensitive than the Salmonella assay for detecting genotoxins in the tested samples. The results of this study indicated that nutmeg and oregano are genotoxic while dark soy showed genotoxicity only at low concentration. Long term exposure to these condiments can lead to bioaccumulation which might have varying degrees of genotoxic and mutagenic effects including cancer in exposed individuals

Keywords : Gross Domestic Product , Gross Fixed Capital Formation , Per Capita Health Expenditures , Total generation of electricity Total Road Lengths Total Telephone Lines
Published in : Journal of Economic Research

Title : Cytotoxic, phytochemical and antioxidant potential of marshy herb Enhydra fluctuans Lour
Authors : Sunita Bhatnagar,Rituparna Panigrahi

Enhydra fluctuans is a marshy herb usually eaten by folk people as vegetable and also used for anti diarrhoeal activity. In the present study solvent extracts of the leaf were screened for phytochemical, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity. All the extracts showed the presence of tannin, saponins and flavonoids. Except for chloroform extract, terpenoid was also present in all other extracts. Cytotoxic activity was conducted using brine shrimp mortality assay, Chloroform extract showed highly significant activity of 93.9%. Antioxidant activity was tested qualitatively as well as quantitatively and polar extracts showed better activity in comparison to non-polar extracts.

Keywords : Enhydra fluctuans , tannin , saponins , flavonoids , cytotoxic , antioxidant
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : What’s in a name? – A sneak peek into Malaysian Chinese culture through the naming methods of eating houses
Authors : Lay Hoon Ang,Kai Chee Lam

Much can be studied on names, because names by themselves are typical instances of language use in society. In a multilingual and multicultural setting such as Malaysia, it is interesting to find out how do the Malaysian Chinese deal with the naming of their eating houses. As such, the current paper attempts to explore the naming methods of Malaysian Chinese eating houses from the sociolinguistic point of view. In specific, this paper aims to explore the methods applied by Chinese shop owners in naming their eating houses and to identify the cultural elements reflected in the names. The analysis of naming methods and cultural elements is based on Chinese names of eating houses collected from several states in Malaysia. Results show that use of auspicious words, personal names, reserved words, wishing words, numbers, fine words, flora and fauna, dialects, and homophonic words are the nine major methods in naming Chinese eating houses, in the sequence of popularity. Overall, it can be concluded that they show elements of innovations while retaining the essence of their Chineseness.

Keywords : Malaysian Chinese culture naming method eating house.
Published in : Journal of Arts & Language Studies

Title : Analysis of Factors Affecting Meat Demand in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria
Authors : Maurice David Chinda,Salamatu Umaru,Jongur A. A. U,Girei Abdulhameed Abana

Meat is an important component of the diet of people needed for a healthy living. This study basically analysed the factors affecting meat demand in Michika Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. Primary data were used and collected from 148 randomly selected household heads using structured questionnaires. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in the selection of respondents. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were employed in analysis of the data. The results revealed that majority (74%) of the household heads were men and married, with an average household size of 8 persons. About 74% of them have attained some levels of formal education, 40% were farmers and they earn an average of ₦32,182.67 a month. Their meat sources were predominantly from cattle and poultry birds. The result of regression analysis revealed that family size, marital status, level of education and monthly income positively influences meat demand in the area. However, age was found to negatively affect meat demand. The coefficient of determination was 0.87 indicating that 87% of the variation in meat demand was explained by the variables used in the model. The study recommends that household heads diversify their income sources to increase the family’s disposable income. Training programmes be organized for household heads on nutrition and dietetics to sensitize them on the nutritional diseases associated with protein deficiency.

Keywords : Analysis. Affecting , Demand , Factors , Meat
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Reducing error rates in image transmission over 3g system using convolutional code techniques wireless communication networks
Authors : Udeh Ikemefuna James, Lois Onyejere Nwobodo, ,

Error correction codes are widely used in almost all digital systems as they provide a method for dealing with the unknown like noise. This research investigated the role of reducing error rates in image transmission over 3G systems using convolutional coding technique in MATLAB. The error correction code employed was the convolutional error correction codes. The performance of the codes are evaluated based on key performance indicators like Bit Error Rate (BER), number of symbols or data compared and number of errors detected. For the verification of proposed approach, computer simulation results are included. The results show a comparison of the performance terms of their Bit Error Rate (BER) of convolutional code with different code rate ( ½ and 1 /3 ) used. Based on the results, between 60% and 65% improvement on coding was achieved between reference points of 10-2 and 10-4 respectively for the two code rates. The results also show that as the Bit Error Rate (BER) decreased, the coded system can transmit data signals with at least 3dB less power, so making the performance of the coded system better than the uncoded system.

Keywords : Error Correction , Bit Error Rate , 3g Network , Convolution Code , Transmission Over
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : Improving congestion control in gsm networks using end to end window technique
Authors : Udeh Ikemefuna James,Lois Onyejere Nwobodo,

This is an exploratory survey of T.C.P congestion control principles and techniques. By studying congestion control techniques used in T.C.P implementation software network. We can better comprehend the performance issue of packet switched the network and in particular, the public internet interaction between transmission control protocol (T.C.P) and Random Early Detection (R.E.D) gateway, can be captured using dynamical models. In order to curtail the escalating packet loss rates caused by an exponential increase in network traffic, active queue management technique Random Early Detection (R.E.D) have come into practice. Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ) ensures fair access to network resources and prevents a busty flow from consuming more than its fair share. In case of (Random Exponential Marketing) R.E.M, the key idea is to decouple congestion measure from performance measure (loss, queue length or delay) performance parameter NS- 2 Network stimulator

Keywords : :Random Early Detection Gateway , Packet Loss Rates , Active Queuing , Congestion Control , Mobile Communication (GSM)
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Packet loss minimization in asynchronous transfer mode (atm) in wireless communication networks
Authors : Udeh Ikemefuna James,Lois Onyejere Nwobodo,

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a multiplexing/switching protocol for broadband services where information flow on logical connections are organized in fixed size cells called packets. The fundamental problem of this wide area switched networks is packet losses due to congestion, bit errors or deliberate discards/. This paper focused on the reduction of packet losses to ensure optimal performance of the ATM network. analysis of the distribution of consecutive cell losses in ATM switch and loss process analysis of the knockout switch using stochastic activity networks are proposed. UltraSAN, a SAN based performance modeling and analysis tool were used to automatically generate and construct the needed Markov processes of the underlying stochastic activities of the switch and workload. Packet losses and loss rate were determined using active probe utilities. Results showed that a percentage of 0.01 to 10 percent reduction in packet losses were achieved by the combination of high activity fractions and low loads.

Keywords : Asynchronous Transfer Mode , Packet Loses ATM Switch , Active Probe Activities , Low Load
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : Capturing the best skills to generate and inspire the multigenerational workforce
Authors : Imelda A. Mora

The study was conducted to assess and describe the best skills to generate and inspire the multigenerational workforce. The subject of this dissertation has been chosen to find out strategies on how to create a cross-generational friendly school and how to create an environment that will be comfortable to all generation groups and when culture of excellence will thrive. Leaders will find this research an appropriate reference for managing multigenerational personnel. The seven (7) schools that participated in the research were: a) Assumpta Academy Bulacan, b) Colegio del Buen Consejo, Pasig City, c) La Consolacion College, Mercedes Pasig City, d) La Consolacion School, Balagtas, Bulacan, e) La Consolacion College, Valenzuela City, f) La Consolacion College, Caloocan City and g) La Consolacion College, Tanauan City, Batangas. The questionnaire consists of three parts. Part I is for the demographic profile of the respondents comprising of gender, highest academic degree, level in the organization and generation group. Part II is the quantitative part with three sections. Section A is the adaption of Carol Dweck’s mindset Scale. This is a 20 item quiz that aims to determine the orientation of the mindset of the respondent (growth mindset or fixed mindset). The study utilized the descriptive method of research using simple purposive sampling technique. Based from the data collected, the following were concluded: there is no significant difference in the behavioral skills between Males and Females, there is no significant difference in the behavioral skills between Bachelors, Master, and Doctor degree holders, there is no significant difference in the behavioral skills among the Administrators and Faculty members and there is no significant difference in the behavioral skills among Builders, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials.

Keywords : Best kills , multigenerational workforce
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : The reading comprehension and mathematics proficiency level of high school students and their correlates
Authors : Rigette Ryan s. Ramos,Enrique G. Baking,Dolores T. Quiambao,Reynaldo C. Nicdao,Alvin V. Nuqui,Reynaldo C. Cruz

This study dealt with the different factors affecting the mathematics proficiency level of high school students of the public secondary schools in Sta. Ana, Pampanga. It described the school factors in terms of facilities and book student ratio the teacher - respondents’ highest educational attainment, age, civil status, teaching experience and seminars/trainings attended the proficiency levels of the students in reading comprehension and mathematics and the educational attainment of the parents and monthly income of the family of the students. The problems encountered by the mathematics teachers in teaching the subject and the proposals to remedy the problems were likewise included. The data gathered were treated with the use of frequency distribution, weighted mean, and percentage. Correlational analysis and chi – square test were also used in this study. Based from the results, all school related factors and teacher related factors in terms of civil status, years of teaching and seminars/trainings attended affect the mathematical proficiency of the students reading comprehension level is significantly correlated to the students mathematics proficiency level while the teacher related factors along the aspects of educational attainment and age and all family related factors were not significantly related to the mathematics proficiency level of the students.

Keywords : Mathematics Proficiency Level , High School Students
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : The state of science teaching in the grade school diagnosing issues and problems
Authors : Rachelle R. Lacson,Enrique G. Baking,Dolores T. Quiambao,Reynaldo C. Nicdao,Alvin V. Nuqui,Reynaldo C. Cruz

This study dealt with the teaching of Science and the problems encountered by the grade four pupils of Mexico Elementary School as a basis for science remediation program. It described the teaching of Science along the areas of curriculum, support to learning and the problems encountered by the teachers and pupils in teaching and learning the core area. Moreover, it also presented the assessment of the teachers and pupils in the different dimensions of the curriculum in terms of learning objectives, learning content, teaching strategies and methodologies, medium of instruction, and evaluation/assessment tools. Likewise, it presented the assessment of teachers and pupils in the different dimensions of support to learning in terms of facilities, laboratories, instructional materials, and capability of the teacher. The data gathered were treated with the use of frequency distribution, weighted mean, and Pearson r coefficient of correlation. Based from the results, the present curriculum in Science is effective. Support to learning the subject is likewise effective. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the assessment of the respondents on the curriculum and support to learning. In addition to the findings, ther e were problems and challenges encountered by the respondents which were given recommendations. Finally, a Proposed Science Remediation Program was suggested

Keywords : Teaching , Science Problems , Science Remediation Program
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Strategies in teaching music and their perceived effectiveness
Authors : Pablito P. Gantan,Enrique G. Baking,Dolores T. Quiambao,Reynaldo C. Nicdao,Alvin V. Nuqui,Reynaldo C. Cruz

The study aimed to determine the various methods used by the Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health Teachers in the public secondary schools of Mexico Pampanga, academic year 2014-2015. The work highlighted the profile of the teachers and described the eight commonly used methods used by the teachers. The effectiveness of these methods was assessed by the respondents. The problems encountered in music classes and proposed solutions were mentioned. To attain the purpose of the study, the researcher used the descriptive survey type of research and used the following instruments the surveyquestionnaires, unstructured interview, and documentary analysis and class observations. The respondents of the study were the thirty three (33) MAPEH Teachers handling music subject among the seven public schools of Mexico, Pampanga and the four hundred eighty (480) fourth year students of San Juan High School. To gather data the researcher used the following instruments surveyquestionnaires, interviews, classroom observations and data analysis, frequency distribution and weighted mean were also used for the numerical computation and the t-test was utilized for the statistical treatment of data. Based from the data collected, the following were concluded in terms of the profile, it was found out that most of the teacher-respondents were young and single most of them are new in the government service. None attended a solely music seminar for the past five years only two teachers in the whole town of Mexico were musically inclined but not trained professionally. The methods the teachers used in teaching music were assessed as “much effective” by the teacher-respondents but were assessed as “very much effective by the student-respondents. The problems encountered in music were described as “serious problems” by the respondents and most of it according to the data was caused by the institution. There were proposed solutions and they fell under the “strongly agree” descriptive rating. The hypothesis was rejected and it was proven that there was a significant difference between the teacher-respondents and the students-respondents assessment on the methodologies used in teaching music. The conclusions on the study were the following the female teachers outnumbered the male teachers, lack of support and discrimination from the institution leads to the fluctuation of interest towards the subject and that there is a great need to re-assess the role of music in the curriculum and its role to the students’ development.

Keywords : Methods , Teaching Music , Arts , Physical Education and Health , Public Secondary Schools
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Correlates of students’ academic performance in intermediate level
Authors : Mary Lane g. Lansangan,Enrique G. Baking,Dolores T. Quiambao,Reynaldo C. Nicdao,Alvin V. Nuqui,Reynaldo C. Cruz

This research focused in determining the relationship between the related factors and the academic performance of randomly selected intermediate pupils in three (3) selected public schools in Porac East District school year 2013-2014. Three hundred twelve (312) pupil respondents hence, thirty six (36) teacher respondents were asked to answer the questionnaires. The major findings indicated the following conclusions Respondents belonged to small sized families along with their parents who are living together. In relation to parents’ profile, they achieved low educational level. In relation to the other related factors, teachers are assuring quality education even though opportunities on trainings are limited to few. Also, instructional materials were rated as always. Concerning to the pupil-teacher ratio, majority belonged in bigger classes at the same time their assessment for school facilities is adequate. Pertaining to the academic performance, it is described as good. In contrast, methods/strategies show significant relationship in the academic performance. Generally, the study concluded that there is no significant relationship exist between pupil, teacher and school related factors and pupils’ academic performance.

Keywords : Academic Performance Intermediate Pupils
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Learning difficulties and coping mechanisms of grade school of hearing impaired pupils
Authors : Anna Liza R. Manuyag,Enrique G. Baking,Dolores T. Quiambao,Reynaldo C. Nicdao,Alvin V. Nuqui,Reynaldo C. Cruz

The study was conducted to assess and describe the learning difficulties of the hearing impaired pupils in the elementary schools of the Second District of Pampanga for the School Year 2014-2015. It described the profile of the respondents according to age, sex, and grade point average the learning difficulties of hearing impaired pupils as to lack of selfmotivation and self-worth, loss of effective communication and socialization, inactive participation and academic achievement, and negative attitude and engagement towards learning and the materials to be used in improving the learning difficulties of the pupils and the measures or coping mechanisms of the hearing impaired pupils in addressing their learning difficulties. The study utilized the descriptive method of research using simple random sampling technique. The study was conducted at the seven (7) public elementary schools in the Second District of Pampanga namely Guagua Elementary School, Sta. Cruz Elementary School, Floridablanca Elementary School, San Isidro Elementary School, Lubao Elementary School, Sto. Tomas Elementary School and Parulog Elementary School during the school year 2014-2015. The respondents of the survey were seven (7) SPED teachers and 60 hearing impaired pupils from the seven (7) public elementary schools in Pampanga. Based from the data collected, the following were concluded: the hearing impaired pupil-respondents are aged 7 years old, females, and having a grade point average of D (75%-79%) and AP (80%-84%) hearing impaired pupils seldom experience difficulties in terms of lack of self-motivation and self-worth, loss of effective communication and socialization, inactive participation and low academic achievement, and negative attitude and poor engagement towards learning hearing impaired pupils used pictures as their tools that accompany them in learning hearing impaired pupils often take measures to help themselves fight the difficulties brought about by their condition and learning difficulties there were no significant differences on the perceptions of hearing impaired pupils when grouped according to age, sex, and grade point average in their learning difficulties and there is no significant relationship on the perceptions of hearing impaired pupils and their SPED teachers in their learning difficulties. Meanwhile, the following were recommended: teachers should provide intervention and mediation programs to sustain the positive outlook of the hearing impaired pupils on their conditions and on their academic performance teachers should also provide more visual materials to further accompany the hearing impaired pupils on their studies parents should also take more initiative in engaging themselves in the schooling of their children and collaborated with teachers in providing tutorial type of assistance for the hearing impaired pupils and the school should also intensify its efforts in sending its teachers, especially the SPED teachers in attending more seminars catering the special needs of the hearing impaired pupils and also outsource more materials to support the Special Education program for the said pupils.

Keywords : Learning Difficulties and Hearing Impaired
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Lactating Mothers’ Weaning Practices in Lamingo, Plateau State, Nigeria
Authors : Lar Luret Albert,Banwat Mathilda Edmund,Wash-Pam Anna Awukun,Abubakar Joshua Difa,Lar Lungfa Albert

Background: Weaning is the introduction of the first solid foods to infants and maintenance of breastfeeding by demand up to two years of age. The first months of infants’ life are characterized by rapid growth and development and cultural, occupational and educational factors could influence these various weaning practices. This descriptive, cross-sectional, community-based study among 219 breastfeeding mothers, in Lamingo assessed weaning practices among them. Methodology: The participants were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data was collected using pre-tested, semi- structured, interviewer-administered questionnaires and analysed using Epi-Info version 3.4.5 software. Results: Most 104(47.0%), of the respondents had a good knowledge on weaning practices. One hundred and sixty seven (76.3%) of them introduced weaning foods at the age of 6 months. Majority 87(39.7%) of the respondents gave their children ‚gwete, a local porridge made from hungry rice with vegetables‛ as the first food. The knowledge of weaning practices was significantly influenced by the mothers’ level of education (p=0.0045). Conclusion: This study showed that most of the respondents had good knowledge on weaning practices, but were ignorant on what weaning meant. Therefore, it was recommended that mothers should be educated on the importance of weaning to the growth and development of the child.

Keywords : weaning practices , Lactating Mothers , Lamingo , Nigeria
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Precision Agriculture Energy conservation in Wireless Sensor network (WSN) by using Bioinspired Quorum sensing Method
Authors : Rashid Hussain,Neha Sharma

Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a network of independent nodes used for environment monitoring. At the same time WSN developers face challenges that come from failure of communication link due to limited energy. We need to integrate zero wastage and minimum energy consumption technology. As MAC protocol is more energy efficient protocol as compare to others Thus in this paper we use MAC protocol with continuous active/sleep mode rather than cyclic sleep mode. The major aim of this paper is to describe a bio inspired mechanisms using Quorum based technique that save energy at idle stage of the sensor. We try to extend the energy efficiency of sensors by estimating per sensor traffic load and using a grid based Quorum technique with MAC protocol continuous active and sleep schedule

Keywords : Wireless sensor network(wsn) , Bio inspired Quorum Sensing Method
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Tharaka people of Kenya
Authors : Magrate M. Kaigongi,Fredrick M. Musila

Though the majority of people in Kenya and Tharaka in particular, depend on ethnomedicine to manage different ailments, the indigenous knowledge largely is not documented. As a result, an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used to manage ailments in Tharaka, Kenya was conducted. The objectives were to identify and document plants traditionally used for medicinal therapy by the Tharakans, to find out the method used for preparing and administering the drugs and to find out the conservation practices for the medicinal plants. Ethnobotanical data was collected by observations and use of semi-structured interviews. 71 plants belonging to 51 genera in 30 families were identified and reported to be of medicinal value to the locals. Roots are the most used (38%) followed by leaves (29%) and stem/bark (26%). The study revealed other hitherto undocumented medicinal plant species that may be new records for treating various ailments. Traditional medicine in Tharaka provides a convenient, accessible and cheap remedy that suits the traditional lifestyle of the local community in comparison to the modern medicine. Majority of the plants reported in the current study were found to be under threat and this warrants for conservation measures so as to maximize the sustainable use of these vital resources in the study area.

Keywords : Ethnobotany , traditional medicine , medicinal plants , indigenous knowledge
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : C/C++ Program- Determination of Energy Band Gap from UV-Visible Spectrograph Results
Authors : Rajivgandhi S,Dinesh Kumar A,Balamurugan K

Currently computers are used in all areas of research and development. Main theme of this article is how and why we will use the high level programming languages like C/C++ languages for simple calculation in physics. This article reports the energy band gap of materials using C program. The calculation made by characterization of sample using absorbance spectrum of sample is obtained from UV–Vis Spectrometer. We have written and executed the C program successfully for the calculation of band gap energy. While executing the program we got better and accurate results.

Keywords : C/C++ program , energy band gap , UV-Visible spectrograph
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : Clinical Outcomes in Angiographic Documented Coronary Artery Disease Managed with Optimal Medical Therapy in Current Era - One Year Follow Up
Authors : Om Prakash,Vijay Pathak,Rashmi Gupta,Manish Ruhela

Background The management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is complex. There is no study from India showing clinical outcomes in angiographically documented coronary artery disease in ACS and stable coronary artery disease in the current era. In most of previous studies only stable CAD patients were enrolled . Therefore the study is planned in view of above points to assess the outcome in patients with angiographically proven CAD on optimal medical therapy. Methods We conducted Hospital based observational descriptive prospective study involving 106 patients who had objective evidence of myocardial ischemia and significant coronary artery disease in at least one major epicardial vessel and not willing for either CABG or PCI, presenting to department of Cardiology, SMS Medical College from march 2013 to nov. 2013 and one year follow up was done till nov.2014. The clinical outcomes were recorded at six month and 12 months follow up. Results Most of the patients were male with a mean age of total patients’ 58.93±11.49 years (range 32 to 83 years). Of these patients, 72 had diagnosis of previously stabilized ACS and 34 had stable coronary artery disease. The baseline characteristics of the patients were similar in the two groups. 45.28% of patients were symptomatic due to angina at 6 months. At 12 months, only 24.46% of patients had angina. There were no significant differences between the stabilized ACS group and non-ACS group in death (overall death 6.6% 8.3% vs. 2.9% P = 0.52) hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome (19.4% vs. 11.8% P = 0.48) or myocardial infarction (overall MI 10.4%, 11.1% vs. 8.8% P = 0.98), overall hospitalization rates (27.7%vs. 11.8% P=0.09). Conclusions Previously stabilized ACS as well as patients with stable coronary artery disease had similar outcomes with OMT so an initial management approach optimal medical therapy can be implemented safely in the patients with previously Stabilized ACS as in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

Keywords : :ACS ,Angiographically documented coronary artery disease ,Non-ACSandOptimal medical therapy
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Women of Different Age Groups in Rural Population of Andhra Pradesh
Authors : Rvbs Sarma,Sajja Srikanth

Background & Objectives: The main objective of the study is to identify the prevalence of Metabolic syndrome as people with the Metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for developing diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease as well as increased mortality from cardiovascular disease risk factors. Materials & Methods: A total number of 60 female subjects participated in the study. The subjects were grouped into two different age groups i.e. 30-40 and 40-50 years age. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Lipid profile, Fasting blood glucose, Blood pressure, Height, Weight & Waist circumference were recorded in all the subjects. Results: We observed that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 20% in women of 30-40 age group and 63.33% in women of 40-50 years of age group based on the NCEP ATP-III criteria. Conclusion: Programs aimed at detection and treatment of dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity may reduce the burden of Metabolic syndrome in our population. Metabolic Syndrome present in epidemic proportions among the elderly represents one of the major threats to longevity and healthy aging

Keywords : Diabetes , Dyslipidemia , Hypertension , Insulin resistance
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Ergonomics and musculo-skeletal disorders in dentistry

In spite of recent advances in technologies, occupational health related problems are more prevalent in modern day dentistry. Musculo-skeletal disorders are one among them that frequently haunt and disable many of the contemporary dentists. The proportion of reporting of musculo-skeletal pain and seeking of medical intervention for the same are on an increase among the dentists and the dental staffs. Dental procedures, sometimes, might be laborious needing constant focus of work in areas of difficult, minimal or restrained access in oral cavity. Dental procedures involve use of potentially dangerous instruments and materials that require proper handling and disposal as well as a good assistance from patient and the supporting dental staffs apart from the dentists. Dentists have to adopt necessary safety measures as these risks cannot be engineered out of dental office always. While abstaining from such risks, dentists also face stiff challenge of maintaining proper working posture to avoid any strained muscles. Musculo-skeletal disorders potentially handicap the dentists' health and inadvertently affect the quality of the dental practice. Proper use of the dental resources is an absolute necessity for the dentists to keep such disorders at bay and avoid incurring considerable impact on economics and good will of dental practices. It is of paramount importance for dentists to be updated with information regarding tackling of these health problems and wise use of necessary innovations. By learning the art of coping strategies for prevention of musculo-skeletal disorders, dentists can tread a fine line between maintaining health, income, technical and professional standards.

Keywords : Musculo-skeletal pain , occupational health problems , ergonomics , musculo-skeletal disorders , posture , dental professionals , static postures , neutral positions
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Salient alterations in hepatic and renal histomorphology of an Indian minor carp, Labeo bata (Hamilton, 1822) owing to ZnS nanoparticle induced hypoxia and environmental acidification
Authors : Nilanjana Chatterjee,Baibaswata Bhattacharjee

Due to enhanced surface photo-oxidation property of ZnS in its nanoparticle form, the dissolved oxygen content and pH value of water was found to reduce in a dose dependent manner from their normal values, when ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes are exposed to the water in various concentrations. This property was more prominent for ZnS nanoparticles with smaller sizes. Labeo bata, exposed to ZnS nanoparticles, responded to hypoxia with varied behavioural, physiological and cellular responses in order to maintain homeostasis and organ function in an oxygen-depleted environment. Due to the minimization of food uptake, the hepatic cells of L. bata were found to shrink and empty spaces generated in between them as they used storage deposit to maintain the metabolic activity of the fish. The kidneys of the exposed fishes showed shrinkage of glomerulus and dilution of tubular lumen due to reduction in glomerular filtration rate in oxygen depleted atmosphere. Vacuolization and hyaline degeneration of tubular epithelium were also seen in the renal histomorphology of L. bata when the exposure time exceeded 6 days.

Keywords : ZnS nanoparticles Photo-oxidation Hepatocytes Renal histomorphology Morphometry
Published in : The International Journal of Earth & Environmental Sciences

Title : Status and Mitigation of Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater in India
Authors : C. P. Kumar

High arsenic concentrations in groundwater in different states of India have become a major cause of concern in recent years. The groundwater in the past was considered to be safe for drinking purposes, but now it is recognized that many shallow tube wells contain arsenic at concentrations higher than the safe limit set for drinking purpose by WHO (1993). It is becoming an emerging issue in the water supply and health related sectors of India. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent status of arsenic in groundwater in India and present various methods suitable to be adopted in mitigating its adverse effects on human health.

Keywords : Arsenic , Contamination , Groundwater , Mitigation , Geogenic , Anthropogenic
Published in : The International Journal of Earth & Environmental Sciences

Title : Emergence of drug resistance in bacterial isolates from hospital wastewater- A potential health hazard
Authors : Hena Jamali,Abdul Malik,Sana Jamali

Introduction: Release of sewage effluent containing bacteria having elevated antibiotic resistance levels poses threat to environment. The antimicrobial selective pressure through indiscriminate use of antibiotics has played a significant role in enriching the mdr strains in the hospital practice. Materials and methods: Study was conducted at the department of agricultural microbiology, aligarh muslim university, aligarh, up (india). Wastewater samples were collected from a drain of j. N. Medical college, aligarh. Isolation of the enterobacteria was done. All isolates were tested for their sensitivity to antimicrobial agents by means of disc diffusion method [1] . Results: In the present study, a total of 50 enterobacteria were isolated from hospital wastewater. All the isolates were tentatively identified by morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. All the isolates were further tested for their antibiotic susceptibility (Table 2). A high level of resistance against penicillin-g (90%) was observed in strains isolated from hospital wastewater. Resistance against cloxacillin, novobiocin, nalidixic acid and polymixin b was 66%, 56%, 28%, 2% respectively (Table 3). All the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, doxycycline, gentamycin, kanamycin and chloramphenicol. Majority of isolates from wastewater were found to be resistant to multiple drug/antibiotics. Among the fifteen antibiotics/drugs tested, seven different resistance patterns were observed in enterobacteria isolated from hospital wastewater. Conclusion: Results of this study may be beneficial to design environment-friendly techniques for the removal of antibiotics from wastewater to overcome the problem of antibiotic resistance development in the aquatic environment.

Keywords : Enterobacteria , Hospital , Wastewater , Resistance
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : The Bioactive Compounds obtained from the Papaya (Carica papaya) act as Potential Anticancer agents against the Human Prostate cancer cell line DU-145
Authors : Asish Bhaumik,Swapna M,Sucharitha M,Devika K,Ashwini Kumari N

The papaya is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne.It consists of high content of zeaxthin, proteolytic enzymes like papain and chymo papain, vitmin K, β-carotene, other phytoconstituents like polyphenols, sugars, aromatic amino acids and sulphur containing amino acids, phytosterols, starch and nutrients e. g P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Mg etc and had good health protective effects. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the anticancer activity of various extracts of fruit of Carica papaya against Human Prostate cancer cell line DU-145. DU-145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cell lines are the "classical" cell lines of prostatic cancer DU145 cells have moderate metastatic potential compared to PC3 cells which have high metastatic potential The DU145 cell line was derived from brain metastasis. SRB assay was used to analyze the cell growth inhibition. From the present studied it had been displayed that CFE, ELE and MLE, all were exhibiting the potential capability to kill the cancer cell when compared with standard drug 5-FU. The cell growth inhibition by various extracts of fruit of Carica papaya was varied due to the presence of varying concentration of bioactive compounds. CFE had displayed the highest cell growth inhibition (94.52 %) at 6.25 μg (IC 50 = 2.2 μg/ml) due to the presence of polyphenols (flavanoids), ELE with the 93.83% growth inhibition at 6.25 μg (IC 50 = 2.4 μg/ml) and MLE with the 92.80% % growth inhibition at 6.25 μg (IC 50 = 2.6 μg/ml).

Keywords : Zeaxthin , Phytoconstituents , DU-145 , Metastatic potential , SRB , IC 50
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : In Vitro Evaluation of Nematicidal Action of Neem and Bt Formulations on Meloidogyne Incognita
Authors : Harjinder Kaur,Harpreet Kaur,Praveen Rishi

Background & Objectives: Meloidogyne incognita is a one of the major pathogens of tomato in India and cause severe crop damage. M. incognita can be managed effectively by chemical treatments but many of the nematicides are expensive, pose human and environmental risk. Management of M. incognita with biological control agents has been receiving growing consideration. Therefore, in the present study neem and Bt were used to control M. incognita through egg hatching experiment in laboratory conditions. Methods: Nematicidal activities of neem and Bacillus thuringiensis have been investigated against root-knot nematode (M. incognita) in laboratory conditions. For this purpose, the effects of aqueous extract of the neem leaf and seed alone, Bt alone (whole cell suspension) and combination with each other on the hatch of eggs of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluation for different time intervals (1 h to 72 h). Results: The NSE inhibit the egg hatching at first hour was 50% which increased to 100% at 72 h. NLE was also effective and egg hatch inhibition was 94.3% and 96.8% at 48h and 72h respectively. Egg hatch inhibition in standard concentrations (100% w/v) of neem, increased with increase in incubation time from 1 h to 72 h. Effect of whole cell suspension (WCS) (1.1X 10 9 CFU/ml) + neem seed extract on egg hatching after 12 h exposure was the most effective treatment and caused significantly least number of egg hatching (0.2%) as compared to the water control. The present study indicated that WCS formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis strain MTCC CODE 1953 was effective and caused significantly 100% egg hatch inhibition after 72 h exposure as compared to the water control.

Keywords : M. incognita , WCS(whole cell suspension) , NLE(neem leaf extract) , NSE(neem seed extract) , CFU(colony forming unit)
Published in : International Journal of Microbiology & Parasitology

Title : Variation of Ultrasonic Velocity and Some Acoustic Parameters of Ternary Liquid Mixture of Methanol Ethanol 1Benzene with Temperature
Authors : Diikko AbdulAziz Bamanga,Eyube Edwin Samson,Pascal Timtere,Oriolowo Niyi Zara

The density, viscosity and ultrasonic velocity have been measured for ternary mixture of Methanol+Ethanol+Benzene of fixed equal volumes of the components at temperatures of 303.15 K, 308.15 K, 313.15 K, 318.15 K, 323.15 K and 328.15 K. The experimental data have been used to calculate some acoustic and thermodynamic parameters: adiabatic compressibility, free length, free volume, and internal pressure. It was observed that adiabatic compressibility (β), free length (L f ), and free volume (V f ), increased with increase in temperature, whereas internal pressure (πi ) decreased with increase in temperature. Some probable reasons for the increase or decrease of acoustic and thermodynamic parameters with temperature change are presented.

Keywords : Ternary mixtures , Ultrasonic velocity , Acoustic/Thermodynamic Parameters , temperature.
Published in : The International Journal of Physics

Title : Up-To-Date Review on Therapeutic Interior of Catharanthus Roseus for Anticancer and Antidiabetic Activities
Authors : Ashwani Kumar,Richa Malik,Pinki Giri,Nazia Parveen,Shweta .

Cathranthus roseus comprise a group of alkaloids mainly vincristine, vinblastine, resperine, ajmalcine. Here we review the recent advances in the biosynthetic pathway of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) in C. roseus, and the identification and characterization of the corresponding enzymes involved in this pathway. Vincristine and vinblastine are used for treatment of various type of cancer such as Hodgkin’s disease, breast cancer, leukemia etc. Madagascar periwinkle is poisonous if ingested or smoked. The pharmacognostical aspects of cathranthus roseus alkaloid cover botanical, phytochemical and analytical data. It has high medicinal value which needs to be explored extensively.

Keywords : Catharanthus roseus , Vinblastine , Vincristine , Anticancer , Antidiabetic.
Published in : Journal of Phytomedicine

Title : Ethnomedicinal Plants Used for Treating Scorpion Sting and Snake Bite Poison by the Tribes of Rahatgaon, Harda
Authors : C Sreelatha Kutty

The present study mainly focuses on the study of Indigenous Herbal Remedies used for treating poison of scorpion sting and snake bite by tribal communities of Rahatgaon of District Harda, in Madhya Pradesh. The present study is based upon the ethno botanical studies on two tribal communities of Gond and Korku. Tribal healers utilize several local available plants in ethno-medicinal practices. Present paper reports the use of 23 species of plants used by the tribal communities remedy for animal poison.

Keywords : Medicinal plants , tribes , scorpion sting , snake bite
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Active Content Variation in Citrus Limon: Age, Temperature, pH and Air
Authors : Apoorva Sehgal,Bharat Jhanwar,Umesh K. Gilhotra

Vitamin C is an antioxidant and free radical scavenger for human body. Consumption of Vita C as a nutrient in diet is recommended. Thermal process, environmental factors and pH can cause a negative impact on vitamin content in multivitamin formulation and juices due to physical and chemical instability. Vita C content varies with the age of lemon fruit from unripe to stale. The present paper aims towards content variability and stability studies under various storage conditions like temperature air and pH. Classical methodology like Iodatometric titration is an easy way to trace out the vitamin content in any source using potassium iodate with starch as external indicator. Fresh ripened lemon juice contained 36.5 mg/100ml Vita C, whereas unripened contains 74.6 mg/100ml. Thermal shock of higher degree can decrease the content but for preservation lower temperature was found less deteriorative and deleterious. Percent loss of vitamin were found higher, 56.52 at 80°C and 39.12, 34.8 and 26.3 at 60°C, 40°C and room temperature respectively. Lower temperature shows good retention of vitamin content in the juice so as the percent loss were found 21.9, 13.01 and 8.68 at 12°C , 0°C and -12°C respectively. Air treatments and pH attacks were found harmful for Vita C storage. Storage of it in open bottle in environment the amount was decrease up to with time of min. manipulation of ph using acids and bases also found to decrease the content.

Keywords : Vitamin C Iodatometric , Age , Thermal Shocks , Storage , Environmental and Deteriorative
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : Black-Scholes PDE and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck SDE Process to Analyse Stock Option- A Study in Fuzzy Context
Authors : M. Shahjalal,Abeda Sultana,Maheswara Rao Valluri,Nirmal Kanti Mitra,A.F.M. Khodadad Khan

Option valuation plays an important role in financial derivative. Prices of underlying assets are derived from other assets. In this paper, Fuzzy approximation to Black-Scholes PDE is considered to analyze options. Ornstein-Uhlenbeck SDE process is solved numerically to visualize the future price trajectory of stock. Drift and diffusion coefficients of SDE process are considered as triangular fuzzy numbers. The study found to be a qualitative and satisfactory agreement while comparing the real data.

Keywords : Fuzzy stochastic differential equation , Black-Scholes PDE , Ornstein-Uhlenbeck SDE , Drift , Diffusion , Derivative , Option
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : Role of Education for Upbringing of Society
Authors : Lalit Kumar Pant

Each and every human being who is part and parcel of the society, has to think critically about various issues of life, take required or needed decisions about them with free will may be far away from biasness or prejudices, superstitions and blind beliefs and even otherwise also. It can, therefore, be said that education is a way of learning the qualities of head, hand and heart through the process of gaining knowledge or wisdom. Sociologists have different thought about the role of education which distinguishes between several types of social movement related to reform movement, radical movement, innovation movement, conservative movement There are two movements of academic arena and by mixing the view points of old and new movement as far as the education or academic arena is concern, old movements which existed for centuries lead to change. Various such movements, fought for specific social groups, working class, peasants, whites, aristocrats, and also for the protestants. The movements of Twenty First Century which are also called the new movements are found to be dominant from the second half of the 20th century and cover the feminist movement, choice movements, civil rights movement, environmental movement, gay rights movement, peace movement, anti-nuclear movement, alterglobalization movement, etc. Generally the movements focus around which that go beyond and are not separate from class. Various talks have been held in the way of discussions which have been generated on various topic of social networking and the effect it may play on the formation and mobilization of social movement. The field is open for further studies in various fields including the developmental, historical, biological, sociological, financial etc. The teachings and preaching given in the various holy books, sayings of saints and academicians lead to a great way. Whatever is gained or achieved by individual or public also contributes for the up-liftment of the society at large. Therefore, it will be proper to place that the role of education in any field ultimately finds and makes its place by making the way for development or taking to the peak of its position. Various welfare programs conducted by the NGOs for serving various segments of the society is considered to be the best way to work for the poorer section of the society world wide.

Keywords : Movements , heritage , belongingness , Vedas , preaching
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Microbial Load of Some Polyherbal Products from Lagos State, Nigeria
Authors : MacDonald Idu,Adeola Jimoh,Oghale Ovuakporie-Uvo

Polyherbals major markets LThis study investigated the microbial contamination of commonly used polyherbal products in Lagos State. Thirty polyherbal products were purchased from different vendors. Using standard microbiological techniques for microbial analysis, the bacteria isolates used included Bacillus sp (100%), Flavobacterium sp (30%), Pseudomonas sp (50%) and Staphylococcus sp (33.3%) while the fungi isolates used were Fusarium sp (10%), Aspergillus flavus (43.3%), Penicilium sp (13.3%), Geotrichum candidum (3.3%), Mucor sp (3.3%), Aspergillus oryzae (23.3%) and Aspergillus niger (3.3%). The total bacteria counts ranged from 2.5x103 to 6.4x109 cfu/ml while fungal counts ranged from 9.5x103 to 3.5x109 cfu/ml. This study has shown that most polyherbal preparations sold in Lagos State are of poor microbiological standards which may be due to poor sanitary and inappropriate hygienic measures. Improved hygiene standards of polyherbal products is recommended.agos Nigeria

Keywords : KEYWORDS: Microbial load
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Increasing Trends in Dairy Sector in India
Authors : Hanish Sharma,Vipan Kumar,Heigo Pal,V.M. Wadhawan

Livestock production is the vital sector which action a major source of income to the impoverished rural households throughout the world. Livestock equip people with food, income, draught power and fertilizer and act as the major livelihood means of millions of our country, where crop farming faces challenges India is one among the fastest growing economics of the world and mainly depends on the agrarian sector as a tool for progress. Dairy sector is emerging as the highest contributor to the agricultural wealth of India, surpassing even cereals. India is the highest milk producing country in the world contributing 16% of the world production. The annual milk production in India has reached 119.44 million tonnes in 2011 against the 23 million tonnes in 1971 and the share of this sector is also increasing year by year.

Keywords : Dairy sector , livestock , growth.
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : A quantitative study of correlates of job satisfaction among officers of Nigeria police
Authors : Barisua Ernest Nwidag,Solomon Joseph Okwendi

The significance of job satisfaction in any organizational setting and work environment, including law enforcement cannot be over-emphasized. This is due to the fact that job satisfaction has the tendency to influence work productivity, staff turnover, labor market behavior, work effort, and employee morale. Job satisfaction has long been the subject of discussion among academic scholars, industrialists, researchers, as well as in the business community. The study critically examined the correlates of job satisfaction from the organizational viewpoint among officers of the nigeria police. Data was collected through mail in survey from 500 police officers across the country for over a period of three months of which 437 of the surveys were found valid for data analysis, representing 72.8% response rate. The results suggest that “the work itself, remuneration/pay, promotion opportunities, and supervision had significant impact on job satisfaction while co-workers had no significant correlation with the officers’ job satisfaction.

Keywords : : Job satisfaction , Nigeria Police.
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Student Affairs and Services Among Selected Higher Education Institutions in Bulacan - A Policy Study
Authors : Romulo B. Mercado Jr.,Danilo S. Hilario,Alvin V. Nuqui

The study aimed to analyze and determine the extent of implementation and compliance of selected Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Bulacan based on the Guidelines on Student Affairs and Services (SAS) and its impact to the students and institutions. The results of the study revealed that the assessment of the student respondents and student personnel services produced similar results. They perceived that SAS programs among selected HEIs in Bulacan are “existing and implemented.” However, Student Housing, and Services for Students with Special Needs are perceived by both groups as “not existing but implemented.” Both groups consistently perceived that SAS programs are mostly implemented at “great extent” by their institutions and implemented within the minimum standard and its impact are perceived by both groups positively.

Keywords : student affairs and services , policy study , student welfare programs , student development programs , impacts , higher education institutions.
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Android Security Application
Authors : Ma. Magdalena V. Gatdula,Alvin V. Nuqui

The main purpose of the study is to design and develop an Android Security Application that will secure contacts, conversations, and pertinent files once the phone was lost. The application can detect the new mobile number of the new user if replaced by another Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card and the cell phone will be set in flight mode. In order to make the study possible, several methods and techniques were employed in developing an efficient security application that is capable of retrieving contacts and detecting new SIM card number. The study utilized developmental research design to simulate and explain various conditions that may affect the achievement of the objectives of the study. After developing the application, the researcher did several tests on how the application behaves when installed with android phones having different operating system’s versions. The developed application was evaluated and showed a good acceptability level based on the respondents evaluation. The system was found acceptable and has a “Very Good” rating as reflected by the computed grand mean of 4.64. The researcher recommends pre-installing the application in every Android Operating System so that when the phone was formatted, the application will not be deleted.

Keywords : Android application , phone security , mobile , developmental
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : Traditional Phytotherapy for Health Care of Tribal’s in Eastern Ghates of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Authors : S.B. Padal,S. Devisoundarya,Koda. Satyavathi

Ethno botanical studies were carried out to collect information on the use of Medicinal Plants by the tribal people of Eastern Ghates of Andhra Pradesh, India. Ethnomedicinal uses of 71 plant species along with local name, botanical name, family, part used, ailments for which the drug is administrated, mode of administration are presented. They belong to 54 genera and 33 families. These plants use to cure different type of ailments. Most remedies were taken orally, accounting for 62% of medicinal use. The most widely sought after plant parts in the preparation of remedies in the areas are the root and leaves. Tribal people have high number of medicinal plant species for the treatment of different type of diseases.

Keywords : Ethnomedicinal investigation , tribal people , eastern ghates , andhra Pradesh
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : A Review on Ethnomedicinal Plants used for Antidiabetic medicine in Andhra Pradesh.
Authors : S. B. Padal,N. Mary Roja,S. Devi Soundarya

Diabetes is one of the major diseases in India. The present review is attempts to enumerate the list of the plants used for antidiabetic medicine in Andhra Pradesh, India. The herbal medicine have been esteemed source of medicine hence medicinal plants growing concern in current days due to low toxicity and absence of side effects. The World Health Organization (WHO) says about 65-80% of the world’s population of developing countries depends on plants and plant derived compounds for their primary healthcare needs. In the view of above advantages the present review provides profile of 92 plants belongs to 51 families used to treat diabetes described. This clearly shows the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes.

Keywords : Antidiuretic medicine , Medicinal plants , Diabetes , Andhra Pradesh.
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Health and Social Wellbeing of the Workers in the Stone Quarrying and Crushing Industry
Authors : Naveen Ramesh,Bobby Joseph

Introduction: The quarry is an open excavation or a type of open pit mine, from which the stone is obtained by digging, blasting or cutting. The Indian quarries cater to the needs of railways, road construction and maintenance, housing and infrastructure building. The objectives of this were to assess the social wellbeing among quarry workers, to study the health issues peculiar to specific vulnerable population groups in the quarry, specifically under five children of quarry workers, women and the elderly and to enumerate if any health problems among workers, with specific reference to injuries and other work related morbidities. Methodology: This study was a cross sectional study done over a period of one year among people working in three quarries, situated in the peri-urban area of Bangalore. Predesigned and pretested tools were used to collect the data from various vulnerable groups working in quarries. Results and discussion: Social wellbeing, most of the workers were migrants from neighbouring states were dissatisfied with their job and isolated working conditions. Nutritional status of under five children, 95% of the children were undernourished. Status of women employees, the common health problems were musculoskeletal pain, menstrual disorders and substance abuses in the form of alcohol. Among the elderly, majority were employed, cataract and vision were the most common problems. Most common injuries were cuts and bruises on the lower limbs. The workers in quarry had lowered lung function test as measured by the mean PEFR when compared to the standard mean PEFR among Indians.

Keywords : quarry , workers , social wellbeing , women , children , elderly
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A Review
Authors : Mukesh bansal,I.J. Singhvi,Rahul Rajpurohit

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) also called Lou Gehrig's disease is a rapidly progressive, invariably fatal neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells (neurons) that responsible for controlling voluntary muscles.several known ALS genes were fund to be associated and TBK1 (the gene encoding TANK binding kinase) was identified as an ALS gene. In the United States, more than 5,600 are diagnosed every year, and up to 30,000 Americans are currently affected. ALS is responsible for two deaths per 100,000 people per year. Smoking, Lead exposure & Heredity are the major factor for ALS. No cure has yet been found for ALS. However, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first drug i.e. riluzole (Rilutek)—in 1995. Riluzole is believed to reduce damage to motor neurons by decreasing the release of glutamate. However, new medications or combinations of drugs would be beneficial for cure or prevention of diaease.

Keywords : Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , TBK1 , Lead exposure , Riluzole
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : The Use of Poetry Writing in Nurse Education- An Evaluation
Authors : Morteza Alibakhshi-kenari

Background: Arts based approaches have been used in health education in various ways e.g. to develop emotional awareness, reduce anxiety and stress and assess communication skills. Objectives: This evaluation aimed to explore the use of poetry writing as a way for undergraduate nursing students to consider their feelings about important practice issues. Methods: 42 first year undergraduate nursing students were asked to write a poem which focused on an important nursing issue e.g. compassion, communication or the therapeutic role of the nurse. They were then asked to read the poem aloud to a small group and discuss its meaning. Results: 60% (n=24) of students reported that the exercise had increased understanding of their chosen subject, 70% (n=30) stated that they had learned something about themselves and 65% (n=26) of students stated that they had enjoyed the poetry writing exercise. Qualitative comments suggested that the use of poetry enabled greater understanding of others experiences, promoted open and honest reflection on feelings and supported the development of confidence. Conclusion: There is a need for teaching methods which engage and develop students' imagination, if they are going to be adequately prepared for the demands of nursing practice. Poetry writing and discussion supports the development of confidence, therapeutic communication skills and the ability to think creatively.

Keywords : Creativity education empathy snuring students poetry
Published in : Journal of Arts & Language Studies

Title : MFCC and GMM Based Tamil Language Speaker Identification System
Authors : P. Santhiya,T. Jayasankar

Speaker identification is a process of automatically identifying who is speaking on the basis of the individual information included in speech waves. Speaker identification is one of the most useful biometric recognition techniques in this world where insecurity is a major threat. Many organizations like banks, institutions, industries etc are currently using this technology for providing greater security to their vast databases. Speaker identification mainly involves two modules namely feature extraction and feature matching. Feature extraction is the process that extracts a small amount of data from the speaker’s voice signal that can later be used to represent that speaker. Feature matching involves the actual procedure to identify the unknown speaker by comparing the extracted features from his/her voice input with the ones that are already stored in our speech database. In this paper we present the overview of approaches of feature extraction using Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients, which is most widely used feature in speaker identification system and feature matching GMM technique for Tamil speaker identification

Keywords : Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients , GMM , feature matching , feature extraction ,DCT.
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Power quality conditioning of isolated micro hydro power system for rural application
Authors : Haroon Ashfaq,Mohammad Saood,Rajveer Singh

This paper introduces a distributed generation based on standalone micro-hydro power generation system (40kW) using synchronous generator with DG (diesel generator). A micro-hydro power generation model is a run of river plant with synchronous generator directly coupled to the turbine. A back-to-back ac/dc/ac static converter is used as power conditioning system (PCS). This proposed design is very simple, reliable, efficient and all mechanical adjustments are eliminated by using a proposed power conditioning system through which electric grid connection can be made. Power quality improvement analysis is done using power quality analyzers and FFT analysis. Using FFT analysis, THD at load and inverter is analysed. The topology and dynamic performance of the proposed system has been demonstrated and validated by using MATLAB Simulink based simulations.

Keywords : Micro-hydro , synchronous generator , Isolated system , power quality analyzer , FFT analysis , DG.
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Uses of birds for ethnomedicine among the Maasai people in Monduli district, northern Tanzania
Authors : John Kioko,Delaney Smith,Christian Kiffner

Background: The use of birds for ethnomedicine is not well documented, particularly in Africa. The purpose of this study was to understand how birds are used for Traditional Medicine (TM) among the Maasai people. Methods: Data on the use of birds for TM was collected on the Maasai people through informal and structured interviews. Maasai elders, traditional doctors, and Laibons were interviewed to get information on ethnomedicinal uses of birds. The information colted included the bird species used, part of the bird used, the mode of preparation and administration and, and availability of the species. The Fidelity Level (FL%) and Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) were calculated to determine the perceived availability of bird species and common ailments treated using birds. Results: Birds in sixteen bird orders were said to be used for curative purpose and fifteen bird orders were used for spiritual healing. Ciconiiformes and Struthioniformes were commonly used for curative purposes, while Passeriformes and Ciconiiformes were mostly used for spiritual healing. Curative treatments were administered mainly in the form of concoctions, while in spiritual treatments used the whole bird was used. Bird species were said not to be readily availability for either curative or spiritual use. Conclusion: It is evident from this study that birds play an important role in healthcare among the Maasai people. Future studies should focus on analysis of the active bioactive chemicals in the parts and products of birds used for curative purposes

Keywords : Medicinal uses of bird species Maasai people
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : The Role of Technology in the Sustainable Economic Development- the Case of Africa
Authors : sally farid

The purpose of this paper is to study under what conditions technological innovation can foster and promote sustainabledevelopment. It considers all forms of technological innovations that are potentially conducive to sustainable development.This article examines how technology has contributed in promoting sustainable economic development and particularly inAfrica. It presents the concept of Sustainable Economic Development and the Sustainable Economic DevelopmentStrategies, discusses existing technologies in sustainable development, shows the role of technology in sustainabledevelopment, and presents the information and communication technology to promote economic development in Africa andthe obstacles to set up policies for innovation and technology in Africa. Several working methods were used, one aspectcommon to all the methods used is that we have favored a multidisciplinary approach, which takes account of technological,ecological, economic, institutional and social aspects.

Keywords : Technology , Sustainable Economic Development , ICT in Africa.
Published in : Journal of Economic Research

Title : Evaluation of arch dimensional changes after orthodontic treatment in extraction and non-extraction cases. An in-vitro study
Authors : S Narayanan,C Sabarigirinathan,K Vinayagavel,P Rupkumar,M Kanmani,K Venkata Seetha Lakshmi

Orthodontic treatment for malocclusion correction may involve extraction or non-extraction of specified teeth for esthetic and functional harmony. Antero-posterior and transverse arch dimensional changes following orthodontic treatment has been evaluated using many methods. The present study evaluated the arch dimensional changes after orthodontic treatment in extraction and non-extraction cases using AUTO CAD system with medial and lateral edges of 3rd primary rugae and mesio-incisal tip of the most prominent incisor as the reference points. A total of 100 (Group 1- Upper bicuspid extraction=50, Group 2- Non-extraction=50) orthodontically treated cases were selected in the age range of 19-25 years (Males=50, Females=50). Their pre and post treatment study models were collected and photographed. The photographic data was then digitized and arch dimensional changes were measured using AUTO CAD. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses using Paired t-test, Unpaired t-test, Levene's test and Gain score measurement test. There were significant antero-posterior tooth movements in extraction cases when compared to non extraction cases, a significant reduction in the intermolar width after premolar extractions but minimal changes in the intercanine width showing significance at 5% level. In non-extraction cases, there was no significant arch dimensional changes after orthodontic treatment in both intermolar and intercanine region. Maximum antero-posterior arch dimensional changes can be seen in orthodontically treated bicuspid extraction cases and non extraction cases show minimal changes in the antero-posterior dimensions even after orthodontic treatment. Significant amount of anchorage loss can be seen in upper bicuspid extraction cases when compared to non extraction cases. Reduction in the intermolar width and contraction of maxillary arch occurred in upper bicuspid extraction cases with minimal changes in the intercanine width. Minimal transverse arch dimensional changes occurred in non-extraction cases after orthodontic treatment.

Keywords : Arch width changes , extraction Vs non-extraction
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Toxicological effect of plant flavonoids on MCF-7, A-549 and PA-1 cancer cell lines
Authors : Rajeev Nema,Sarita Khare

The research aimed in the direction of five different medicinal plants (hydro alcoholics extract) to evaluate anticancer activity and cytotoxcity. The most important purpose of this study is to evaluate cytotoxicity of these medicinal plants with facilitate of MTT assay. Concentrations are prepared of each plant extracts which are 100 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 0.1 μg/ml, 0.01 μg/ml and 5-10×103 cells/ml are taken into each well which are exposed to different Concentrations of plant extracts crude and elute of column chromatography [CC] for 96 hrs and then treated with MTT and take absorbance at 570 nm. Standard drug was used for IC50 of Doxorubicin MCF-7 500nm, A549- 550nm, PA-1- 580nm.

Keywords : Toxicology , Medicinal Plants
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhoea among female physiotherapy students
Authors : Salvi Shah,Kristina Makwana,Pravajya Shah

Background: A common gynaecological problem encountered among female students is dysmenorrhoea, which also appears to be a leading cause of absenteeism from college. Hence arises a need to evaluate the menstrual characteristics and prevalence of dysmenorrhoea along with its severity among students. Materials and methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2014 to July 2014 at SPB Physiotherapy College, Surat, Western India. The study group included 133 female students. The data was collected by general assessment form, questionnaires regarding menstrual characteristics and dysmenorrhoea, Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Verbal multidimensional scoring system (VMSS) for assessment of dysmenorrhoea severity. Percentages and Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses. Results: The average age of the participants was 20.8 ± 1.8 years (range 17–23 years).Prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was found to be 71.2%.There was an association between dysmenorrhea and coffee consumption, choclate consumption, menstrual bleeding duration days, menstrual cycle regularity, family history of dysmenorrhoea, any gynaecological diseases (P < 0.05, for each one). Among dysmennorhic respondents, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain of dysmenorrhoea was 1-3 (n=48), 4-7(n=19), 8-10 (n=22). Conclusion: Dysmenorrhoea is a very common problem among girls and it affects their quality of life. It can be better managed by mental preparation and by appropriate change in lifestyle like regular physical exercise and with assurance to the students. It is important to spread awareness about the causes and treatment of dysmenorrhoea to avoid undue sufferings causing absenteeism from work and studies.

Keywords : Dysmenorrhoea , Menstrual characteristics , VAS
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Estimate the Insulin Secretion Stimulated by GLP-1 Using Yule and CMJ Process
Authors : A. Dinesh Kumar,M. Vasuki,P. Pavithra,S. Srinithi

Glucagon like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) exerts beneficial antidiabetic actions via effects on pancreatic β and α cells. Previous studies have focused on the improvements in β cell function, while the inhibition of α cell secretion has received less attention. The aim of this research was to quantify the relative contribution of GLP-1 induced insulin increase and glucagon decrease, on the overall glucose lowering effect of native GLP-1 infusions in a clinical setting with the help of Yule process and estimation of convex function with focus on exponential or Markovian case.

Keywords : Insulin , GLP-1 , Yule Process , CMJ Process & Normal Distribution.
Published in : International Journal of Mathematics & Computing

Title : To Study Oil Control Property of Parsley Leaf Extract in Cosmetic Products
Authors : Sangeeta Sahasrabuddhe

Skin is a protective covering and an attractive feature for both men and women. It forms an important part of personal appearance. But Oily skin can be a challenge. It is usually seen on thicker, larger pored skin and contributes to blemishes. The Parsley leaves extract (juice) is used in this project to study oil control property. The latin name used for parsley (Petroselinum hortense), is formed from two Greek words: "petros" which means "stone" and "selinon" which means "celery. It is important to mention that parsley contains more vitamin C than lemon, orange or any other fruit ie more than 50mg/100g of Parsley. It has abundant quantities of other vitamins and minerals such as: pro vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin E, vitamin K, beta-carotene, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, sodium, potassium, sulfur and calcium. Parsley has long been widely used in cosmetics to freshen the face, discoloration, freckles and dark age spots, wrinkles and prevent the occurrence of red spots, strengthen and grow hair. The Cleanser base was selected with the 2% and 4% concentrations of the active which then subjected to its in-vivo study in order to evaluate its oil control property using Sebometer. The 4% concentration of parsley leaf extract was found to be effective oil controlling agent.

Keywords : Skin , Parsley leaves , oil control , Cleanser base , Sebometer.
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Sibr (Aloe Barbadensis Miller.), A Potent Herb of Unani Medicine - A Review
Authors : Amena Khatoon,Ashfaque Ahmad,Mohd Azeem

Unani System of medicine is universal in its origin and exists into south Asian countries particularly in India. In this system most of the treatments depend upon plants. Unani Drugs consist of naturally occurring mostly herbal medicine. India has such a diverse climate that many kinds of medicinal herbs and plants are available in this country.Among them one is Sibr (Aloe vera Linn.). Sibr, also known as the ‘plant of immortality’ by the ancient Egyptians, was used for its healing properties since time immemorial. It is known for its succulent or fleshy leaves. This nontoxic plant stores water in its leaves and survives in low rainfall and arid regions. Aloe Vera leaf looks unique. it doesn’t have any stems and the edges of leaves have tiny spikes. It has detailed descriptions in Unani Literatures.

Keywords : Sibr , Drug review , Unani Literature
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Highly active TiO2 nanophotocatalysts for degradation of Methyl Orange under UV irradiation
Authors : Hiral Soni,Nirmal Kumar J. I.,Khushal Patel,Rita N. Kumar

This study describes the application of novel chemistry methods for the removal of dye by Nano structured titanium oxide (TiO2) photo catalysts. Such materials can be applied in the development of efficient photo catalytic systems for the treatment of water. Nano crystalline TiO2 was synthesized by Sol-Gel route using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a metal precursor. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).Synthesized TiO2 was related to anatase phase and crystalline structure was characterized by XRD. Cuboidal and uneven shape of TiO2 nanoparticles were observed by TEM images. FTIR reveals the functional groups present in the synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles. Thus synthesized TiO2 nanoparticle was used for photo catalytic degradation of methyl orange. The photo degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye, is examined both under different dye concentration (10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm) and amounts of TiO2 (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg / 10 ml). After 15W UV-365 nm irradiation for 3 h, ca. 99.9% of MO was degraded with addition of 20mg TiO2 to solutions containing 40ppm dye. The photo degradation mechanism of the quinonoidal methyl orange using nanoparticles is low cost, eco-friendly and cost effective process in the removal of toxic dyes.

Keywords : TiO2 nanoparticles , Photo catalytic degradation , Methyl Orange , XRD , TEM , FTIR.
Published in : The International Journal of Earth & Environmental Sciences

Title : Influence of information and communication technology utilization on teachers’ performance - towards enhancing technology-driven schools

This research paper sought to investigate how the utilization of Information and Communication Technology influences the teachers’ performance among the Religious of the Virgin Mary (RVM) secondary schools in Luzon. The simple descriptive survey and descriptive-correlational research methods were employed in exploring the influence between variables. The level of influence of the teachers’ utilization of ICT resources on their performance was statistically analyzed using multiple regression analysis. In this study, it was found that the teachers’ utilization of ICT software resources in RVM schools in Luzon exerted significant influence on their performance in terms of promotion of learning environment, diversity of learners, curriculum implementation and spiritual growth. In addition, the teachers’ utilization of ICT hardware resources exerted significant influence on their performance in terms of social regard for learning, planning, assessing and reporting, community linkages, personal growth and professional development, and spirituality. An ICT Strategic Plan was derived from the findings of the study to further improve the teachers’ utilization of ICT resources.

Keywords : Information and communication technology , teachers’ performance , influence
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Employability and productivity of graduates- an exploratory analysis of program strengths and weaknesses
Authors : Enrique G. Baking,Dolores T. Quiambao,Reynaldo C. Cruz,Laura Miriam B. Buenviaje,Reynaldo C. Nicdao,Alvin V. Nuqui

The purpose of the study was to assess the employability and productivity of the graduates across programs in aid of policy formulation and curricular enhancement. The study asked 630 randomly selected respondents from the colleges of education, engineering, and architecture to respond to a questionnaire that sought information on the employability and productivity of the graduates. The findings revealed that the graduates of Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University are highly employable, and that a great majority of them have jobs aligned with their pre-service preparations. The graduates were found to be highly productive in terms of their perceived readiness on the requirements of their jobs. In terms of their performances in licensure examination, the education, civil engineering, and electronics and communication engineering graduates performed much higher than the national passing rates, but not for the electrical and mechanical engineering and architecture graduates. Some operational strategies and control mechanisms are deemed exigent to further improve the productivity of the graduates.

Keywords : Employability , productivity , employability framework , Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University
Published in : Journal of Economic Research

Title : Predictors of Board Exam Performance of the DHVTSU College of Education Graduates
Authors : Dolores Quiambao,Enrique Baking.,Laura Miriam B Buenviaje.,Alvin v. Nuqui,Reynaldo c. Cruz

As the institution endlessly offer quality education, innovating instruction practice and enhancing graduates’ performances serve up as an input for professional development. The main concern of the study is to determine the predictors of board exam performance of education graduates at Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University. Survey method and extensive documentary analyses were utilized in gathering and interpreting the data. Findings of the study revealed teachers’ educational attainment, teachers’ length of service, quality of library facilities, quality of laboratory facilities, students’ intelligence quotient, and students’ grade point average formed a very significant set of predictors for passing the licensure examination for teachers. Hence, these factors are to be considered vital in developing policies to further improve the education graduates performance in the licensure examination.

Keywords : Board examination , education graduates , predictors , descriptive correlation , Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University , College of Education , Bacolor Pampanga Philippines
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Gender differences- a comparative analysis of the student teachers levels of preparedness and performance in observation and participation
Authors : Juanito Naguiat,. .,ALVIN V. NUQUI

The major concern of the study is to determine the level of preparedness and level of performance in observation and participation of male and female student teachers. The researcher used the causal-comparative method of research. The respondents of the study were the 70 student teachers of the Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University (DHVTSU) who undergone observation and participation practice during the first semester of school year 2014-2015. The teachers were found to be much prepared and exhibited superior performance in observation and participation. The findings revealed that the male and female student teachers have different levels of preparedness in teaching. Based on the positive p- values, it can be deduced further that the male respondents are more prepared than the female respondents. Perhaps the male student teachers are more knowledgeable of their topics, they can adjust their teaching methodologies considering the needs of the pupils/students, they are more punctual and they even use specific criteria in evaluating the performance their pupils/students.

Keywords : Gender differences , level of preparedness , performance , comparative analysis , Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Suspended sediment impact on chlorophyll a, nitrogen and phosphorus relationships in Moon Lake, MS, USA
Authors : Scott Knight,Mary King,Charles Cooper

Moon Lake, MS is a 947 ha. oxbow lake of the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain also known as the Mississippi Delta. Land use within the Moon Lake watershed during the sampling period was predominantly conventionally tilled cotton and soybean farming. Water was sampled from five sites, bi-weekly from 1982 to 1985. Analysis of surface water quality reviled loading of nutrients from nonpoint source pollution associated with agricultural runoff. Significant negatives correlation was found between total phosphorus and chlorophyll a which seems counterintuitive until the effects of sediment on light availability are considered. As expected, Secchi depth was positively related to chlorophyll a and negatively correlated to total phosphorus and nitrogen. Significant positive correlations were found between total sediments and both total nitrogen and total phosphorus however, a significant negative correlation was found between total sediments and chlorophyll a. The strong association of phosphorous with total sediments, the negative correlation of Secchi depth to phosphorus and nitrogen and the positive correlation to chlorophyll a indicate that Moon Lake primary productivity is driven by light availability rather than nutrients. The connection of productivity to sediment effects on light is important to ecosystem services of Delta oxbow lakes.

Keywords : sediments , nutrients , agricultural runoff , non-point pollution , primary productivity
Published in : The International Journal of Earth & Environmental Sciences

Title : On Invariant Light
Authors : Sergey Orlov

A new physical model of the appearance of light, properties, and its trajectory. Explains the paradox of invariance and isotropy of light based on the laws of classical physics.

Keywords : Theory of vortex gravitation , cosmology , cosmogony. Aerodynamics. Invariance of light
Published in : The International Journal of Physics

Title : Exploration of Bioactive Screening against the Microbial Organisms from the two Different Chrysanthemum Medicnal plant Flower with two Assorted Extracts
Authors : S. Sujatha,Gowri Prakash,Vinayak k

Chrysanthemum plant is an ayurvedic important medicinal plant, and modern systems of medicine, flowers are the most important part in the field for preparation of various drugs. The present study aimed to focused objective was to study the two flower extracts with methanol and ethanol solvents and its antimicrobial activity both bacteria (Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas strains) and fungi (Candida species). When the C. indicum plant leaf extract treated with the experimental organisms of three strains Pseudomonas strains clearly showed that the maximum and minimum zone of inhibition was noticed on PA-38, 8±1.38 and PA- 37, 4±0.11. Similarly, ethanolic extract illustrated that the higher activity of this strain PA-39, 11±2.68 as well as PA-38, revealed the observed the value of 9±0.65 minimum effect on ethanolic extract. While, the C. cinerariaefolium ethanolic flower extract was treated with three different strains of Pseudomonas maximum similar zone of inhibition was noticed against PA-37 (10 ±2.75) and PA-38 (10 ±2.65). It was statistically significant as well as highest response when compared with Ciprofloxacin. Amoung the two plants C. indicum possessed excellent antimicrobial activity on both bacteria and fungi than the C. cinerariaefolium plant leaf. Subsequently the present research analyzed flower of the C. indicum plant by GC-MS techniques in order to determine the majority compounds. Totally 18 compounds were analyzed, amoung the 18 analytes camphor is an important peak compound also it contains 19.5 and 0.60% retention time and abundance respectively. Furthermore C. indicum possessed second most compound is Isoborneol, it was probably noticed 0.410% of abundance and its retention time is 17.5. Additionally two compounds also been observed as a sub peak level such as γ- Cadinene Methyl ester and Chrysanthenol. Hence, the current result clearly showed that the C. indicum plant flower is act as a very good potential antimicrobial agent.

Keywords : Chrysanthemum indicum (Linn.) Ethanol , Methanol , antimicrobial activity
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Some Nigerian Roasted Plant Foods
Authors : V.O.E. Akpambang,G. Purcaro,L. Lajide,I. A. Amoo,L. S. Conte,S. Moret

Thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified and quantified in three different roasted plant foods (Zea mays, Dioscorea rotundata and Musa paradisiaca) using a rapid method involving microwave assisted saponification and simultaneous extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and spectrofluorometric detection. The method applied had good recovery and repeatability characteristcs. With respect to raw samples, roasted samples had higher contamination levels with a maximum benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content of 0.6 µg kg-1 dry weight. Roasted Zea mays had the highest low molecular weight- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (LMW-PAH) load of 31.2 µg kg-1 dry weight, which may be due to the fact that the charred portions after roasting are not usually subjected to scrapping, an exercise which is usually carried out on other roasted plant foods. Anyways, PAHs exposure due to the consumption of roasted plant foods may not pose serious concerns for human health, especially as they are low in heavy molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs).

Keywords : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) , microwave assisted extraction (MAE) , HPLC , roasted plant foods , risk assessment.
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : Bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern isolated from urinary tract infection in a tertiary care centre
Authors : Deepti Chaurasia,Rakesh Kumar Shrivastava ,S. K. Shrivastava,Deepak Dubey,M. C. Songra

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) remains the most common bacterial infection in human population. The squealae of complicated UTIs are substantial. It is well established that in the presence of obstruction, calculus, Diabetes mellitus, and other risk factors, UTIs can lead to progressive renal damage. The aim of this study was to determine bacterial agents responsible for urinary tract infection and to evaluate their susceptibility pattern. Urine sample was cultured on Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) media by calibrated loop technique. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby bauer disc diffusion method. Out of 320 samples, 155 samples revealed growth of one type of bacteria, and 15 showed growth of 2 types of bacteria. E. Coli was most common bacteria (115/185=62.16%) followed by other enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and a few gram positive cocci. Many bacteria were found to be multidrug resistant while most of gram negative bacteria were susceptible to Imipenem, and most of gram positive bacteria were susceptible to linezolid.

Keywords : Uropathogens , significant bacteriuria
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Pharmacological Effect of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes on milk induced eosinophilia in the management of Asthma
Authors : Aslam Pathan,Abdulrahman Alshahrani,Feras Al-Marshad

Aim of study- Curcuma zedoaria (Family: Zingiberaceae) is being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of severe bronchitis and asthma. So the aim of study was to evaluate antiasthmatic activity of extracts of curcuma zedoaria rhizomes to validate its traditional & Ethnopharmacological use. Materials and methods- In the present study petroleum ether, ethanol and water extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes at the doses of 25-100 mg/kg i. p. was evaluated for antiasthmatic activity using milk induced eosinophilia in mice. Results- The results of present investigation showed that the ethanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes at (25-100 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreases milk induced eosinophilia in mice in a dose dependent manner when compared to petroleum ether, water extract and control group. Conclusion- It can be concluded that the ethanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria (100 mg/kg) may be useful in management & prevention of asthma.

Keywords : Curcuma zedoaria , asthma , eosinophilia
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Prediction of Diabetes Mellitus using Data Mining Techniques- A Review
Authors : Haldurai Lingaraj,Rajmohan Devadass,Vidya Gopi,Kaliraj Palanisamy

Data mining techniques are used to find interesting patterns for medical diagnosis and treatment. Diabetes is a group of metabolic disease in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. This paper concentrates on the overall literature survey related to various data mining techniques for predicting diabetes. This would help the researchers to know various data mining algorithm and method for the prediction of diabetes mellitus.

Keywords : Diabetes Mellitus , Data mining , Prediction , Decision Tree , Classification
Published in : Journal of Bioinformatics & Cheminformatics

Title : Clinical Evaluation of Gokshura Species in Mutrakrichchra (Dysuria)
Authors : Gajendra Kumar Sharma

Infection of the urinary tract is the second commonest site after respiratory tract infection. It is more frequent in women than men. Almost 50% women suffer UTI. In our classical texts, urinary tract infection is described as Mutrakruchcha. The great Acharya Charak has mentioned it in Chikitsa sthana, Trimarmiya adhyay, its 8 types and Basti as a Marma. For the treatment of all types of Mutrakruchcha, Gokshur is mentioned. In samhita period we find reference only for this Laghu Gokshura‛. But for the first time we find in Rajanighantu reference for Brihat Gokshura also called ‚Gokshur dvaya‛. Botanically Laghu Gokkshura is called Tribulus terrestris of Zygophyllaceae family and Brihat gokshura is called Pedalium murex belonging to family Pedaliaceae. These are classified under mishrak varga as 'Dashmoola'. Gokshur is diuretic, aphrodisiac, tonic and rejuvenating herb with the ability to build lean muscle and strength. Brihat gokshur is mentioned to improve urogenital health. Gokshur possess Madhur rasa, Madhur vipaka and sheet Virya which causes diuresis by increasing Kleda in the body. Due to the visual similarities of the two fruits and their traditional interchanging in Goshukra formulas remarkable difference in there therapeutic properties is not so far studied. So in this study 20 patients complaining of mutrakriccha were assessed by giving laghu Gokshur decoction and brihat gokshur decoction in the dosage of 15 ml twice daily orally. Assessment was done on the basis of sign and symptoms like Mutra daha (burning micturition), Sashula mutrapravruti (painful micturition), Bastishul (suprapubic pain), Mutrapravruti (frequency of micturition), appearance of the urine, Sarakta mutrapravruti (haematuria), Sapuya mutrapravruti (pyuria).

Keywords : Mutrakruchcha , Gokshur , Dysuria , Tribulus terrestris
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Li-Fraumeni syndrome in a patient with familial hyperlipidemia from Western Iran, a case report
Authors : Mehrdad Payandeh,Reza Khodarahmi, Masoud Sadeghi,Edris Sadeghi

Mutations of germ-cell line TP53 gene are mainly reported in Li–Fraumeni syndrome(LFS). LFS-associated breast cancers are both hormone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive. The purpose of this study is presentation of one case of LFS, associated with familial hyperlipidemias. A 52-year-old woman referred to clinic of oncology with a pain in the left breast. Her pathology report showed that she had breast cancer and computed tomography scan showed no evidence of metastasis. Markers of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and p53 were positive, IHC3+ and Ki67 in 20% of cells. We report the first case of a LFS patient with breast cancer and familial hyperlipidemias in Iran who ER, PR, P53 and HER-2 markers for her are positive. Also it is probably that LFS-associated cancer and atherosclerosis diseases are related to each other.

Keywords : Germ-Line Mutation , Hyperlipidemias , Li-Fraumeni Syndrome
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : A case of type IIa Homozygous Familial Hypercholestrolemia with cutaneous xanthomas
Authors : Michelle Serene Fernandes,Pradeep Pereira

Familial Hypercholestrolemia (FH) is characterized by presence of various types of cutaneous xanthomas with a deranged lipid profile. An 8 year old non-obese girl presented with multiple planes, tuberous and tendinous xanthomas and had associated abnormal lipid profile with elevated LDL cholesterol levels.

Keywords : Familial Hypercholestrolemia , Xanthomas
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Mycotoxic Effects Of Seed-Borne Fungi On Seed Health Of Black Gram
Authors : Ashok S. Kandhare

Green gram, Black gram, Pigeon pea and chickpea are common pulses in diet rich in carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. Numerous fungi affect pulses adversely causing reduction in seed content and seed health. During present study, effects of metabolites of seed-borne fungi on seed health are evaluated. Total seventeen fungi recorded from all test pulses. Out of these seventeen seed-borne fungi, six, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Drechslera tetramera and Rhizopus stolonifer, found to be common and dominant on four test pulses. These common and dominant seed-borne fungi produced mycotoxins that affected adversely to the seed germination, shoot and root length of test pulse Black gram in variable quantity.

Keywords : Seed-Borne Fungi , Mycotoxins , Test Pulses
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Impact of Institutional Repositories (IRs) to improve Educational Research and Scholarly Communication With special reference to Bangladesh and India
Authors : Sk. Mamun Mostofa,Bilkis Begum,Muhammad Mezbah-ul-Islam

The prime aim of this paper is to discuss the roles of IR to improve higher education and scholarly communication. The other objectives are to find out the importance and impact of IR in higher education, to give an idea about the present status of IR in Bangladesh and India, the challenges for sharing higher education repositories. The study reported that IR can play a vital role in 21st century’s higher education and scholarly communication in developing countries. This study also provides some recommendations and a model to develop a better IR in educational institutions.

Keywords : Institutional Repositories , Scholarly communication , Higher Education , Bangladesh
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Cancer –From the Horizons of Unani Medicine
Authors : Amena Khatoon,Mohd azeem

Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and in some cases to metastasize.cancer is the Latin word for crab .The ancients used the word to mean malignancy because of the crab like tenacity.It is a mass of tissue formed as a result of abnormal, excessive, uncoordinated, autonomous and purposeless proliferation of cell. Hippocrates [460-377BC] coined the term karkinos for cancer of the breast.. Cancer cells in other words refuse to stop multiplying and continue to increase in number. It is the failure to stop multiplying which is the hallmark of a cancer. This they do even at the cost of other normal cells of the body which are starved to death for lack of nutrition. In Unani literature the basic cause of disease is change in akhlat with respect to their quality and quantity. When the black bile (sauda) deviates from its normal quantity and quality.

Keywords : Akhlat ,Sauda ,Unani Literature
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Treatment of Closed Tibial Pilon Fractures With Open Reduction, Internal Fixation and Bone Grafting. A Study Of 22 Cases Comparing the Objective and Subjective Evaluation
Authors : M. Athmaram,B. Jayachandra Reddy

The cases of twenty two fractures of the ankle joint that involved the tibial plafond were reviewed. The fractures were classified in to five types according to the severity of the injury. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed using one third tubular plate for fibula and recon plate for the tibia. Bone grafting was done to augment the fixation and maintain the reduction.For each fracture treated Objective and Subjective evaluation is done. The objective and subjective scores are compared.With this method we noticed that the Type III & IV fractures also had a good or excellent result

Keywords : Closed Tibial Plafond Fractures , Early Fixation , Bone Grafting , Early Mobilization , Prolonged NonWeight-Bearing
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Anterior Arthrodesis for Tuberculosis of the Spine Using Zeta Instrumentation on Lateral Side
Authors : M Athmaram,B. Jayachandra Reddy

This is a prospective study of twelve patients who are diagnosed to have tuberculosis of spine with some form of neurological deficit. In the present study, the progression of kyphosis and the fate of the bone graft and final outcome over an average twelve month follow up after radical anterior debridement, bone grafting and application of Zeta Instrumentation on the lateral side of the vertebral body is performed. Supplementation with an implant to the procedure of bone grafting after radical debridement is a good choice as a primary procedure. It was noted that It is easy to place the implant on the lateral aspect of the bodies of the spine. There is no need of a second procedure in the form of posterior instrumentation and posterior fusion at a later date. Can be used by surgeons, where the facilities for pedicular screw fixation are not present. There is no progression of the deformity.

Keywords : Tuberculosis , Spine , Drug Therapy , Chemotherapy
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : The Effect of Green Marketing Tools on Sport Products Consumers' Behavior Hamedan Islamic-Azad-University Higher Education Students and Faculty Members view point
Authors : Sirous Ahmadi,Fateme Javadi,Parvin Mohammadi Pakravan

The aim of this study is to investigate the consumer's attitude toward green marketing and its effect on green purchase decision of sport equipment consumers. For this purpose, a sample of 384 samples has been selected using stratified random method from physical education university students of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan in all degrees (associate degree, bachelor's, and master's). By studying the theoretical basis of green marketing mix and green purchase decision, the conceptual model and questionnaire have been designed and developed and data has been collected. Finally, regression results on consumer purchasing behavior have been used to examine the hypotheses. Findings imply that aspects green marketing have significant and positive influence on consumer's green purchase decision.

Keywords : Green Marketing , Green Marketing Mix , Green Purchase Decision , Biological Advertisement , Biological Brand (Green Brand) , Biological Tag
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Impact of Probiotic Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on The Enzymatic Profile and The Economic Parameters of Silkworm Bombyx Mori L
Authors : C. Esaivani,K. Vasanthi,R. Bharathi,K. Chairman

There are many factors that influence the production of silk among which the activity of enzyme plays a significant role in enhancing the digestibility of silkworm larva this in turn influences the growth, development and resistance to disease in silkworm and subsequently enable the silkworm to produce good qualified cocoon and silk. In recent years research interest is currently directed towards the activities of digestive enzymes like amylase, succinate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and alkaline protease which will help in silkworm breeding programme for improvement of cocoon characters and disease resistance. Hence in the present investigation an attempt is made to study the impact fortification of mulberry leaf with probiotic microorganism saccharomyces cerevisiae on the enzymatic profile and the quantitative economic parameters of silkworm Bombyx mori. The results indicate that there is profound increasein the activity of the amylase and invertase in the digestive juice of the probiotic treated worms than the control with enhanced immunity and quality silk production.

Keywords : Sericulture , Bombyx mori , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Enzymatic assay , economic parameters
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Sustainability of the Contributory Pension Scheme in Nigeria
Authors : Ngozi B. Ijeoma,Chris I. Nwufo

This study examined the stability of the contributory pension scheme (CPS) in Nigeria. The objectives of this study includes, to examine whether the CPS has significantly impacted on the economic development of Nigeria, to examine the extent to which CPS has impacted on the development of the Nigerian capital market, and to examine whether there is a sound risk management and effective investment strategy in existence capable of ensuring sustainability of the new scheme. The source of data for this study include primary and secondary source of data collection. The statistical tools employed in the data analysis include the simple regression analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Cronbach Alpha reliability. The result of this study found there exist a strong positive linear relationship between the contributory pension expenditure and the GDP (gross domestic product) in Nigeria. Also found was that the contributory pension Scheme has significantly impacted the development of the Nigeria Capital market. In addition, the findings revealed significant evidence of sound risk management and investment strategies in existence to ensure sustainability of the contributory pension scheme in Nigeria. The result of reliability test of the responses obtained using the research instrument obtained a Cronbach alpha value of 89.1%. This result implies that the response obtained possess 89.1% internal reliability and consistent.

Keywords : Capital market , GDP , Risk management , Reliability , Pension expenditure
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Lying In Mobile Phone Conversations- An Emerging Social Syndrome in Nigeria
Authors : Godson Okwuchukwu Okafor,Unachukwu, Ozioma Pepertua

This study examines the phenomenon of telling lies during mobile phone conversations. This behavioral pattern appears to manifest very often in mobile phone conversations among Nigerians of different sex, age group and class. A total of 500 (200 males and 300 females) respondents made up of university undergraduates and lecturers from Imo State University, Uturu Okigwe were surveyed using convenience sampling technique to ascertain whether they tell lies during conversations using mobile phones. The behaviour described as ‚telling lies‛ was measured using a Social Media Scale developed for this study. The survey method was adopted and data was collected using questionnaire. Study data was analyzed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of unequal sample sizes. Results indicate among others that there is no significant difference in the perception of married and single, male and female individuals towards telling lies via the mobile phone. Interestingly, further findings also reveal that respondents generally agree as in literature that ‚lying is an unavoidable part of human nature‛.

Keywords : Mobile Phone , Social Media , Telling Lies , Social Media Scale
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Effective Public Relations and Organizational Management-The Bond
Authors : Godson Okwuchukwu Okafor,Chinonye Faith Malizu

In recent years, the argument concerning the effects of public relations in organization management has attracted the concern of various scholars. Consequently, professionals and scholars alike have looked for the key concepts to establish the value of public relations. However, the terms ‚relationships‛ and ‚reputation‛ have emerged as the focal concepts in explaining the purpose and value of public relations. The concepts of organization-public relationships and organizational reputation can be integrated within a theoretical framework of public relations effectiveness. When those concepts are integrated in a model, the role of public relations can be captured more clearly than when there is a separate focus on each of the concepts. Therefore, this study sort to examine the effects of public relations in achieving effective organizational management

Keywords : Public Relations , Reputation , Relationship , Organization and Management
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Comparative Analgesic Activity of Trois in rat Formalin Test
Authors : Manu Chaudhary,Gregory Marslin,Vinoth Kumar M

Several topical formulations are available in the market for the management of pain. With the aim of increasing efficacy and decreasing side effects, herbal drugs are being researched for various therapeutic applications This study involved comparison of marketed formulations: Trois, Volini, Moov and Fast-Relief. Trois is a proprietary herbal product indicated for the the management of painful states. The rat formalin test was utilized as the animal model for pain and observations of composite pain score, number of paw licks and pain response latency were recorded in the early and late phases. Results of the present study indicated that Trois was superior in management of acute and chronic pain states as indicated by pain response latency, number of paw licks and composite pain score. Pain scoring indicated that all formulations, except Volini, were significantly better than control in the early phase with Trois showing the highest efficacy. Late phase observations suggested that all formulations were significantly better, with Trois maintaining its higher efficacy. Trois reduced the number of licks and pain response latency to a significant extent in the early and late phases whereas the effect of Moov, Volini and Fast Relief, were significant only in the late phase. Hence, it can be concluded that Trois is a better herbal topical pain relief alternative as compared to other commercial products.

Keywords : Trois , Moov , Volini , Fast-Relief , Formalin , Pain
Published in : Journal of Phytomedicine

Title : Significance of high Eosinophilic count in Non-Helminthic parasitic infections
Authors : Vinay Khanna,Kriti Tilak,Ruchee Khanna,Chiranjay Mukhopadhayay

Eosinophilia in asymptomaticpatients remained a diagnostic challenge which requires understanding of differentparasites. The high eosinophilic counts are usually seen helminths and protozoans but it remained challenging to diagnose other asymptomatic nonhelminthic parasitic diseases. So, it is important to do a controlled study of finding significance of high eosinophilic count in these parasites. In the present study we attempt to find an association between high eosinophilia and non-helminthic parasitic infections.

Keywords : Eosinophilia , parasitic infestation
Published in : International Journal of Microbiology & Parasitology

Title : Use of a Rapid Test Kit and Elisa for Detection of Ns1 Antigen and IgM Antibody in Suspected Dengue Fever
Authors : Susanta Kumar Sahu,Sudhir Kumar Ghosh,Sulin Kumar Behera,Dibya Prasana Mohanty,Satyabrata Thakur

Incidence of dengue infection has been increasing since last few years. Diagnosis of dengue mainly depends upon detection of NS1 antigen, IgM antibodies or a rising titre of IgG antibodies in patients’ blood by ELISA. This study was undertaken to evaluate a rapid test kit for detection of NS1 antigen and anti-dengue IgM antibodies in suspected dengue fever taking NS1 ELISA and MAC ELISA as reference standard. A total number of 1102 serum samples collected from patients having fever for 5 days or less were tested with NS1 ELISA and 1548 serum samples from patients with fever for more than 5 days were subjected for MAC-ELISA. All samples were tested by a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit that detects NS1 antigen, IgM and IgG antibodies. The RDT kit showed a sensitivity and specificity of 95.97% and 99.43% respectively for NS1 antigen detection and 93.90 and 99.53% for IgM.

Keywords : Dengue , Immunochromatographic Test (ICT) , MAC-ELISA , NS1 Antigen
Published in : International Journal of Microbiology & Parasitology

Title : A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study Of Disc Degeneration In A Rural Population And It's Relation With Age, Body Mass Index And Back Pain
Authors : Harsh vardhan,Nidhi Agrawal,Chandra Raychaudhari,Deepak Vinod,Ray Mehta,Viral V. Patel,Diva S. Shah

The prevalence of degenerative discs (DD) in 59 male, 41 female patients belong to rural population of Anand district having mean age of 48.29 years, mean BMI (Body Mass Index) 22.196 kg/ m2 associated with pain, radiculopathies and neurological deficit presenting to the various in & out patient departments of Shree Krishna Hospital & Pramukh Swami Medical College, Karamsad, Gujarat. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed with a sagittal T2 image of the lumbar spine using closed type Superconductive 1.5 Tesla Magnetom Symphony Maestro (Manufactured by Siemens AG, Erlangen Company). Patients with sedentary life style had maximum number of degenerative disc pathologies, while had ambulatory life style had maximum percentage of infective/inflammatory disc pathologies. 98.3 % male patients had degenerative lesions while 92.5 % of female patient had degenerative changes. Age group 61-70 years to be maximum involved. In the lumbar region maximum changes were seen at L5-S1 level (25.7 %), cervical region at C5-C6 level (12.2 %) and at thoracic region at D12-L1 level (24.2 %). B.M.I. group II (18-25 kg/m2 ) to have maximum number of disco genic pathologies. All Congenital / developmental disc anomalies cases were associated with degenerative disc. It can be concluded that MRI is a highly sensitive imaging modality, which closely reflects histological changes. Grade III changes are mostly present in sedentary life style patient with high Body Mass Index.

Keywords : MRI Spine , Intervertebral Disc , Herniation , Bulge
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : comparative study of hepatic changes in patients of metabolic syndrome and chronic alcoholism
Authors : mahesh gupta

Aims and Objective- Comparative study of hepatic changes in patients of metabolic syndrome and chronic alcoholism. Material and Method- The material of the study included 30 metabolic syndrome patients and 30 chronic alcoholics selected from the medicine outdoor clinic (including diabetic clinic) and medicine indoor wards as well as from GI clinic of Postgraduate Department of Medicine, S.N. Medical College and Hospital Agra . Results- Most metabolic syndrome patients (60%) as well as chronic alcoholics (50%) were asymptomatic. Anorexia and fatigue/ malaise was present in 13.3% and 40% respectively in metabolic syndrome patients as compared to anorexia (30%) and fatigue / malaise (50%) in chronic alcoholics. Nausea / vomiting and right upper abdominal quadrant pain was present in 10% metabolic syndrome patients as compared Nausea / vomiting (40%) and Right upper abdominal quadrant pain(26.6%) in chronic alcoholics. Hepatomegaly and icterus was present in 23.3% and 10% respectively in metabolic syndrome patients as compared hepatomegaly (80%) and icterus (60%) in chronic alcoholics. Ascites and upper GI bleeding was present in 13.3% and 6.7% metabolic syndrome patients respectively as compared to ascites (50%) and upper GI bleeding (9%) in chronic alcoholics. Mean AST and ALT levels were 65.56 + 67.22 and 84.9 + 91.9 U/L respectively in metabolic syndrome patients. AST/ ALT ranged from 0.91 to 1.85 with mean of 0.98 + 0.26 while in chronic alcoholics mean AST and ALT levels were 98.4 and 48.2 .AST and ALT levels were statistically significant (p value<0.05) in chronic alcoholics and the AST/ ALT was 2.04. Gamma glutamyl transferase enzyme level was elevated in most (80%) chronic alcoholics while was near normal in metabolic syndrome patients. On ultrasonography most of chronic alcoholics (93.3%) had abnormal findings like fatty liver (80%), cirrhosis (13.3%) as compared to metabolic syndrome patients having NAFLD (33.3%), and cirrhosis (6.67%). On Histological examination metabolic syndrome patients had NAFLD in 33.3%, NASH in 41.6% and cirrhosis in 8.3% as compared to chronic alcoholic patients having fatty liver in 35.7%, alcoholic hepatitis in 49.9% and cirrhosis in 14.3%.

Keywords : Metabolic Syndrome , Chronic Alcoholic
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Hypertension among Women in Tiraira Madani, Rural Sudan: Prevalence and Risk Factors, 2014
Authors : Daffalla A'lam Elhuda,Rowydah Mohammed,Daffalla A’lam Elhuda

Background Hypertension is a major risk factor for strokes, cardiovascular and kidney diseases worldwide and it has considerable variation in its prevalence across different geographic locations and ethnic groups. Objectives This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and to determine its major risk factors among women. Methods A Descriptive cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Tirira Madani village –Sennar state- Sudan. A total of 255 women aged (15 – 75) years were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured twice. Hypertension was taken as blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or ≥ 90 mmHg for systole and diastole respectively. Descriptive cross-tabulations and bivariate analyses were used. The statistical significance was tested using chi-square test. Predictor factors to hypertension were tested by logistic regression. Results Prevalence of hypertension among participants was 25.9%. Factors found to be associated with hypertension were

Keywords : Hypertension
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research
Manuscript Code : age, illiteracy, low salt intake, family history of hypertension, Coffee intake of more than two cups daily, fish consumption, low physical activity, and high socio-economic status. Certain ethnic groups were at increased risk compared to others (RR=2.11, 95%CI: 1.265 – 4.588). Logistic regression model showed age, ethnicity, physical activity level, education level and family history were predictors of hypertension (P-value <0.05). Conclusion Hypertension was prevalent in rural Sudan. Age, ethnicity, socio-economic status, level of education and family history of hypertension were the major risk factors of hypertension.

Title : A Randomised Control Study on Effect of Octreotide in Managemnt of Acute Pancreatitis with Varying Severities
Authors : Soumen Das,Susnata De

Background: Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of other regional tissues or organ systems. Theories on pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis suggest that autodigestion of the gland and peripancreatic tissues by activated digestive enzymes is a key component. Octreotide is a potent inhibitor of pancreatic secretion, but the benefits of octreotide in acute pancreatitis in humans is still inconclusive. Aim: To study the effect of octreotide in acute pancreatitis with different severities. Method: 284 patients were assigned into two groups randomly, the study group comprising of 138 patients received inj octreotide 100 μg S.C. 8 hrly. The other aspects of the treatment protocol were similar in both groups. Severity of the disease was evaluated initially according to Ranson criteria, APACHE II SCORING, CRP values & Balthazar grading. Both the groups were observed prospectively and outcome of treatment was evaluated. Results: The results were analysed after dividing both the study and control group into 5 groups each according-to increased severities. The complication rate was 10% in group 1 and 28% in group 2 according to APACHE II among the study group, whereas it was 23% and 46% in the conrol group respectively. The values in patients stratified according to other criterias were also comparable. The results in cases of severe pancreatitis were poor, complication rates varying from 56% to 100% in the 3'd and 5 th group according to Ranson criteria among the study group and 62% to 100% respectively among the control group. Mortality of the study and control group also did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: Inhibition of secretory function in the early course of the disease especially in mild and moderate cases of pancreatitis has been shown to improve final outcome. As in case of acute pancreatitis it is very difficult to estimate the severity and disease progress at the very onset, and as the majority of cases are mild to moderate in severity, it will be beneficial to start with octreotide in any treatment protocol along with supportive resuscitative measures.

Keywords : Acute Pancreatitis , Management , Octreotide
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Fertility and Family Planning Behavior of Working Women A Study at Khulna City in Bangladesh
Authors : sheikh mahinoor wafa

Objective- Fertility and family planning behavior are sets of knowledge and attitudes that regulate the number and spacing of children in a family through the practice of contraception or other methods of birth control. This exploratory research was conducted to analyze the behavior and perception of working women towards fertility and family planning. Material and Methods- By using purposive sampling, data taken from a sample of 440 women (15-49 years) from selected 9 wards in Khulna city. Results- The findings show that majority of the respondents, belong to 15-38 age group , were Muslims (78%), marital age(16.75%),age at first conception(18.81) , having an education around 5 years, and normal weight (23.6621) on average. Living in nuclear family (64.1%), with less educated (5.62 year) and low income (6946.62 BDT) husbands, they engaged in any work. About fertility and family planning behavior, the findings disclose that nearly half of the respondents (42.3%) not participated in first conception decision, used contraceptive at present(85.5%) and oral pill(56.9%). The respondents (71.4%) had high perception regarding Family Planning Methods. The study, however, conclusively identified year of schooling (p<.000) and Head of the family (p<.000) as the decisive determinants of contraceptive use. Conclusion -To enhance the fertility and family planning behavior among working women, Policy-makers and programme managers should provide due importance to this fact while formulating policy and designing programme strategy so that these potential acceptors could be turned into contraceptive users.

Keywords : Fertility , Family planning , working women , Decisions making , Behaviors , Bangladesh
Published in : Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities Research

Title : Crystallization of Gastric Mucosa in Patients with Ulcer Disease
Authors : Andrew K. Martusevich,Zhanna G. Simonova

We investigated crystallogenic and initiated properties of gastric mucosa and gastric mucosal homogenates in 12 healthy peoples and 30 patients with ulcer disease (12 patients also have bleeding or perforation or penetration). It is stated, that cocontamination of Helicobacter pylori and Providencia or Morganella combines with high crystallogenic properties of biological fluids. It may be useful for ulcer disease pathogenesis investigation

Keywords : Pathogenic Symbiosis , Microorganism-Associated Crystallogenesis , Ulcer Disease
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Analysis of Trends in LSCS Rate and Indications of LSCS- A Study in a Medical College Hospital GMERS, Sola, Ahmedabad
Authors : nikhil anand,ajesh desai,vijay kansara,seema patel,riddhi patel,bhumika kagathra

Objectives: To analyze trends in the LSCS rate and to analyze the indications of LSCS in modern day practice. Place and duration: The study was carried out over a period of seven months (from June 2013 to December 2013) at GMERS medical college, sola, Ahmedabad. Methodology: Total no of patients delivered were counted and total no. of LSCS done was found. For the LSCS patients, parameters like elective or emergency, parity status, indications of LSCS, were noted and analyzed. Result: Frequency of LSCS in the study period was 25.18%. The indications of LSCS in order of frequency were previous one LSCS in 173 (42.09%) patients, followed by fetal distress in 45 (10.94%). failure to progress in 45 (10.94%),previous 2 LSCS in 28(6.81%),CPD and Breech in 26 cases(6.32%)each, mal-presentation & PIH in 8(1.94%) cases each, antepartum haemorrhage in 10 (2.43%). twin in 7 (1.7%) and oligoamnios and/or IUGR in 16(3.89%). Conclusion: LSCS rate is higher than advised by WHO and previous LSCS is the commonest indication followed by fetal distress. Obstetrical audit will help us a lot in reducing the rate.

Keywords : Caesarean rate , previous LSCS , indications
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Association between ABO Rh Blood Groups and Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders
Authors : Jyoti R Byakodi,K Pushpangali

Background: A number of potentially malignant disorders like leukoplakia, erythroplakia, oral submucous fibrosis constitute a detectable pre-clinical phase of oral cancer. There is a high prevalence of these lesions in India, which is attributed to culture, ethnic, geographic factors, low socio-economic status and varying lifestyle factors. The genetic relation of these lesions is less studied. Blood groups play an important role in the immunogenetic system. Very few studies have been done in India to see the association between blood group and potentially malignant disorders. Hence the present study was under taken to assess the relationship between ABO Rh blood group and oral potentially malignant disorders. Materials and methods: 154 cases with oral potentially malignant disorders diagnosed based on the WHO criteria (1980) were included in the study. Patients reporting to M.S.Ramaiah Dental and Hospital, Bangalore and Kaiwara center (a peripheral outreach center) were included in the study after obtaining an informed consent. Information regarding socio-demographic details was collected using proforma and blood group was assessed using blood group kit with Rapid slide test method. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software11. Descriptive statistics and chi square test were used to find the correlation. Result: Out of 154 cases, 88(57.14%) were males and 66(42.86%) females. 84(54.5%) cases were leukoplakia, 2(1.3%) cases were erythroplakia, 53(34.4%) cases were OSMF and 15(9.7%) cases were with multiple oral potentially malignant disorders. 57(37.01%) of cases belonged to B+ve blood group followed by 37(20.43%) belonged to A+ve blood group.

Keywords : Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders , Leukoplakia , Erythroplakia , Oral Submucous Fibrosis , Blood Group
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Development and evaluation of cinnamon flavored buttermilk
Authors : Sailaja Palthur,C.M. Anuradha,N. Devanna

Cinnamon flavored Butter Milk was developed by addition of Cinnamon powder in Butter milk and investigating the proximate quality, textural characteristics, keeping quality and sensory attributes of the developed product. In our study carried out the variation in moisture, protein, fat and ash content, PH , Acidity and Specific Gravity. When compared to normal butter milk (without cinnamon) significant changes were observed in Cinnamon flavored Butter Milk. The organoleptic studies appearance, color, flavor, taste, mouth feel and overall acceptability were studied and overall acceptability was good for Cinnamon Flavored Butter milk. Furthermore we studied microbial studies such as total plate count (TPC), yeast and mould count, coliform and E.coli to evaluate the safety and keeping quality of the products. Antioxidant and iron chelating activity of the Cinnamon Flavored Butter milk was also determined. The Shelf life of Cinnamon Flavored Butter Milk was better compared to normal buttermilk and recommended for market exploration.

Keywords : Cinnamon Flavored Butter Milk , Organoleptic studies , Antioxidant Properties , Cinnamon
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : Anti-bacterial effect of extracts of ocimum on imipenem resistant gram negative bacteria isolated from burn wound infections
Authors : Vijaylatha Rastogi,Chhavi Vijay,Jeyashree Krishnan,Pushpanjali Verma,Prem Singh Nirwan

Background & Objectives: Emergence of imipenem resistance in gram negative bacteria (GNB) is threatening to become a devastating condition especially in hospital critical care areas like burn units. In the grim scenario of non-availability of newer effective broad-spectrum antibiotic, we decided to determine the antibacterial activity of Ocimum (Tulsi) against imipenem resistant (IR) bacteria isolated from burn wound infections (BWI). Methods: 108 GNB isolated from burn wounds were included in this study. Screening of imipenem resistance was done by disk diffusion (Imipenem disk =10µg) method & confirmed by microbroth dilution method (0.25-128µg/ml). Imipenem-EDTA disk diffusion method was used for detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production & confirmed by PCR detection of the gene. Ethanolic soxhlet extract & essential oil (EO) of Ocimum was tested against imipenem resistant gram negative bacteria (IRGNB) by agar disk diffusion method. Tests for synergism between Ocimum extract & imipenem was also done by disk potentiation test. Chemical fingerprint of essential oil was obtained by GCMS. Results: 32 (29.62%) of the GNB isolated were identified as IRGNB having MIC in the range of 16 to ≥128 µg/ml. 37.5% IR isolates were MBL producers. 6 (23.07%) of 26 isolates tested gave significant inhibition zones & corresponding MIC values ranging 24-26mm & 4-32µg/ml respectively with EO of Ocimum. Synergistic interaction was observed in enterobacteriaceae isolates when EO of Ocimum was tested along with imipenem (10µg) disk. Interpretation & Conclusions: The incidence of 29.62% IR in this study is quite alarming as retrospective analysis of institutional data shows increasing trend. Crude ethanolic soxhlet extract of Ocimum was seen not to be effective against IR strains. However, essential oil of Ocimum may prove to be a panacea in the combat against imipenem resistant infections especially due to enterobacteriaceae.

Keywords : Burn Wound Infections , Gram Negative Bacteria , Imipenem Resistant , Ocimum
Published in : International Journal of Microbiology & Parasitology

Title : Bone marrow biopsy picture in a patient with marfanoid habitus and anorexia nervosa
Authors : Vidhya Lakshmi,Pavethira Ponmudi,Prasanna N Kumar

Gelatinous marrow transformation (GMT) is a rare disorder of bone marrow characterized by deposition of extra cellular gelatinous material. There is atrophy of the marrow adipocytes and loss of hematopoietic elements. It is also called as osseous atrophy of the bone marrow. It is not a specific disease but it is seen associated with chronic illness like malnutrition, anorexia nervosa, HIV infection and administration of cytotoxic drugs. Here, we report a case of gelatinous transformation of bone marrow in a 17 year old female presented with severe weight loss and anemia.

Keywords : Gelatinous Marrow Transformation , Bone Marrow Biopsy
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : Genetic Evaluation and Screening of Donors in ADPKD
Authors : Santhosh Pai B.H,Nischith Dsouza,C.P.Abdulla Yasser,Swarnalatha Guditi,Jagadeesh T

Transplantation is the treatment of choice for ESRD patients in ADPKD if there are no contraindications to Surgery or Immunosuppression. Routine pre transplant evaluation for colonic diverticula or intracranial aneurysm is not required in asymptomatic subjects. Nephrectomy is not routinely indicated in ADPKD patient. It is restricted to patients with a history of recurrent cyst infection , recurrent major bleeding ,complicated lithiasis , severe Hypertension ,or massive renal enlargement ,concomitant with renal transplantation When living related donor is considered a screening test should be done to completely eliminate the possibility that the donor will develop ADPKD in future .For potential donors aged older than 30 years ultrasound abdomen is sufficient for screening , whereas in potential donor aged younger than 30 years absence of cyst will not exclude the development of ADPKD. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may be used for such patients in renal cyst detection. Genetic linkage analysis is a highly sensitive method and is used in donor screening if imaging studies fail.

Keywords : ADPKD , Genetic Evaluation
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Analysis of gene expression in normal and oncogene transfected cells of rat Model
Authors : G. Renuga,J. Amba Bhavani

Cells in culture offer many opportunities to study the characteristics of both the normal and cancer cells. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation, an attempt has been made to study the proteins which are at different phases of the cell cycle. To achieve this objective, rat embryo fibroblasts were synchronized at Go phase by serum starvation for 72h and then stimulated with serum mitogens or purified growth factors. The newly synthesized proteins were labeled with [ 35 S] methionine at different phases of the cell cycle after stimulation and the secreted proteins were analyzed by SDS- polyacrylamide gels. One of the proteins which has shown to be involved in growth regulation was purified and bioassays were carried out to determine its function. The protein 48 KDa was found to be a major compound of the extracellular matrix (ECM) whereas the protein 26 KDa was not a matrix associated protein. When the cells were arrested at G1/S boundary with hydroxyurea (HOU), high levels of protein with 45KDa protein was observed in the medium. Normal rat embro fibroblasts were transfected with myc and ras oncogenes and the transformed colonies were cultured and purified 45KDa protein inhibited the DNA synthesis of myc and ras oncogene transformed cells in which the 45KDa protein secretion was down regulated, indicating the inhibition of DNA synthesis.

Keywords : Cell cycle , DNA synthesis , growth factor , Protein , Oncogene , rat embryo fibroblasts
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Histopathological study of tumours of cervix
Authors : Atul Jain

Carcinoma of cervix is the most common cancer in Indian women and accounts for 20% of all malignant tumours in the females. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) account for 75-80%, adenocarcinoma 15-25%, and adenosquamous carcinomas 3-5% of cervical cancers. Objectives: To study histopathology of carcinoma of cervix and to find out the incidence rate, most common type of the carcinoma of cervix and to find out age predilection in various types of carcinoma of cervix. Material and Method: This study was undertaken in the department of pathology over a period of 2 years from May 2010 to April 2012. All Hysterectomy specimens and cervical biopsies were processed routinely and paraffin sections were taken and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) for microscopic examination. Tumours of the cervix were classified and studied according to WHO classification. Results: The most frequent condition diagnosed on cervical biopsies and hysterectomy specimens were benign cervical polyp (66.3%), followed by carcinoma (23.7%) and squamous intraepithelial lesion (0.2%). Out of all benign cervical polyps, occurrence of adenomatous polyp was highest. Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (19.6%) was more as compared to adenocarcinoma (3.7%). The mean age of the squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, squamous intraepithelial lesion and benign cervical polyp was 49.1 years, 43.5 years, 47.7 years and 44.6 years respectively. Conclusion: Incidence of squamous cell carcinoma was more as compared to adenocarcinoma. Occurrence of malignant lesions was earlier during 4th decade as compared to benign cervical lesions.

Keywords : Cervical polyp , Carcinoma cervix , Squamous cell carcinoma , Adenocarcinoma
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Studies on the various parameters underying the synthesis of nano particles and the in-vitro stability of nano particles
Authors : Priya Iyer,Kamalapriya M.R

It has been previously stated that the gold nanoparticles were synthesized using various green extracts of plants. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized under SEM and EDX to account on the size and composition of the nanoparticles. It was found that the nanoparticles were around 30 nm in size, which stands to be tremendous Nano dimension that can be achieved through a green synthesis approach. The successful reduction of metallic gold into Nano gold particles paved the way forward to the study of the various parameters underlying the synthesis of nanoparticles. The parameters that were considered for the study include pH of the chloroauric acid used and the temperature at which the reaction was carried out. The reaction was carried in varying pH ranging from pH6 to pH 10 and at different temperatures ranging from room temperature to boiling temperature. It was found that the optimum parameter for the synthesis was pH 8 and the synthesis reaction was complete at room temperature. Further, the synthesized nanoparticles were subjected to in vitro stability check at wide range of pH, storage conditions at ±28, 4 0C and -20 0C and sterility check at 121 lbs. The synthesized gold nanoparticles emerged out to be viable upon on all these subjected procedures.

Keywords : Nano particles , Synthesis , Stability , Gold
Published in : Frontiers in Biotechnology

Title : Nitrosoguanidine Derived Mutants of Azospirillum spp. and Their Relationship With in vitro Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Growth Promoting Substances Production
Authors : Dayamani, K. Jagadish,Savalagi VP,Srinivasa, R. Murthy,Krishnaraj PU

Twenty-two strains of Azospirillum spp. were obtained from the 56 maize endorhizosphere samples. Two isolates ASD-7 and ASD-8 were selected on the basis of in vitro N2 fixation and nitrogenase activity (ARA). The inherent sodium azide resistance was recorded and were subjected to NTG mutagenesis. Sixteen mutants were obtained and were further tested for their resistance to higher concentration of sodium azide. Six azide resistant mutants examined for their N2 fixing ability, higher nitrogenase activity and production of plant growth promoting substances. Among the mutants ASD-802 and ASD-801 fixed higher amount of nitrogen (63.01 and 47.53 mg/g of malate respectively) and showed higher acetylene reduction activity (624 and 586 n moles per mg of protein/hr).

Keywords : acetylene reduction , Azospirillum , azide resistance , in vitro nitrogen fixation , , PGPR
Published in : International Journal of Microbiology & Parasitology

Title : Isolation and Identification of Bacterieas from the River Connected With Thermal Power Plant of Korba Chhattisgarh

Enteric bacteria are assumed to exist in fresh water bodies under starving conditions with growth being limited primarily by the non-availability of a suitable carbon sources. Although this assumption is the basis for the use of selected enteric bacteria as faecal pollution indicators, there is evidence to indicate that limited enteric bacterial growth may occur in particular river water. enterobacteriaceae , however not only contain bacteria which serve as indicators of feacal pollution, but also contain others, such as Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Vibrio sp., and Arizona sp., that can produce serious intestinal diseases. The relationship between the various environmental parameters like pH, salinity, and the count of E.coli has been studied. It was found that pH is an insignificant parameter because much variation in pH has not been observed between water samples of river.

Keywords : bacteria , diseases , pH , water samples , pollution
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : ATR-FTIR and HPLC Spectroscopic Studies and Evaluation of Mineral Content of Carica papaya leaves and flowers
Authors : Craig A. Obafemi

We applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to study the main constituents in the male Carica papaya leaves and flowers in the mid infrared region 4000–650 cm –1 . The findings indicated that FTIR spectrum can discriminate and identify various functional groups present in the pawpaw parts. Four water-soluble vitamins, thiamine (vitamin B1 ), riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) niacin (vitamin B3) and folic acid (vitamin B9) were analyzed by HPLC. Niacin and folic acid were detected in the leaves at a concentration of 7.08 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g dry weight, respectively, while only folic acid could be detected in the flowers at a high concentration of 510.34 mg/100 g dry weight. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analysis of the samples showed that the leaves and flowers contain elements like K, Na, Mn, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ca, Cd and Ni in various proportions, with the leaves containing higher concentrations of Mg, Ca, Zn, Fe and Ni than the flowers.

Keywords : Spectroscopic Studies ,Carica Papaya
Published in : Journal of Phytomedicine

Title : Efficacy of intramuscular electrical stimulation with dry needle over classical trigger point dry needling in non-traumatic shoulder pain and dysfunction A randomized controlled pilot study
Authors : Sukumar Shanmugam,Lawrence Mathias

Background: Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) is a common condition in most of the painful shoulder conditions and it is effectively treated with trigger point dry needling of shoulder muscles. Very few studies on Intra muscular electrical stimulation were documented the effects of IMES with dry needle in treating MPS. This study was conducted to establish the clinical importance of IMES with dry needle in Myofascial pain syndrome of non traumatic shoulder disorders. Methods: 30 subjects with unilateral non-traumatic shoulder pain and dysfunction were selected and divided into two groups, 15 subjects in each group. Experimental group (7 male and 8 female subjects) treated with IMES with dry needle and control group (7 male and 8 female subjects) treated with classical trigger point dry needling twice in a week for consecutive 3 weeks. Pain, range of motion, and shoulder disability were assessed with VAS, Goniometry, and DASH-Questionnaire respectively at the end of 1st, 2nd, 3rd week, and end of 3rd month. Results: Descriptive characteristics of pre and post intervention VAS and DASH-Q, score and shoulder range of movements suggesting improvement in intramuscular electrical stimulation with dry needle. Within group comparison of VAS score and DASH-Q score in both groups in all observations shown the p value=.001 and between group comparison VAS score shown the mean 5.70 ± 1.02 standard deviation in the 1st week post intervention and DASH-Q score shown the mean 49.66 ± 9.69 standard deviation in the 1st week, mean 61.76 ± 7.30 standard deviation in the 2nd week intervention. Shoulder range of motion within group comparison was shown the p=.000 in both groups and between group comparison of shoulder abduction was shown the mean difference of 13.7 (p=.033) and 20.4 (p=.028) in the 1st and 2nd week and for shoulder external rotation shown the mean difference of 8.40 (p value= .01), and 9.60 (p=.01) in the 1st and 2nd week post intervention. Conclusion: This pilot study result suggests that both IMES with dry needle and classical trigger point dry needling are effective in treating pain and dysfunction. And subjects treated with IMES with dry Needle more effective in producing early recovery from pain and dysfunction of shoulder compared to the Classical Trigger Point Dry Needling in myofascial pain syndrome due to Non-Traumatic Shoulder pain and dysfunction.

Keywords : dry needling , intra muscular electrical stimulation , shoulder pain and dysfunction , adhesive capsulitis , myofascial trigger points , dry needling physiotherapy
Published in : International Journal of Medicine & Health Research

Title : A Review on Ethanomedicinal Plants Having Antidiabetic Activity in North coastal Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : Dr. S. B. Padal,Nakka Mary Rosa,Seekari Satyavani,B. Sadana,T. Nikitha

The present review evaluates the medicinal plants used for antidiabetic activity in North coastal Andhra Pradesh, India. This review enumerates 100 plants belongs to 58 families used to treat Diabetes mellitus. It clearly shows the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present review profile gives information about ethnomedicinal plants scientific name, common name, family and the parts of the plant used to treat Diabetes mellitus.

Keywords : Diabetes mellitus , Medicinal plants , Antidiabetic activity
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Ethnomedicinal Plants Used By Primitive Tribal of Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam District, A.P, India.
Authors : S. B. Padal,Koda Satyavathi,Sekari Satyavani,TSN Padal

An ethnomedicinal survey was conducted among the primitive tribal community residing in Pedabayalu Mandalam, Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. Although the tribe is fast losing their traditional customs, their traditional medicinal practitioners still exist although the traditional medicinal wisdom of the primitive tribes has not been previously documented. In the present ethnomedicinal survey, it was observed that primitive tribal traditional medicinal practitioners use medicinal plant parts for treatment of ailments. A total of 30 plants were used by the tribal healers in their medicinal formulations. These plant species were distributed into 23 families. Of the 30 plants the ailments treated with medicinal plants by the tribal healers were quite limited. A review of the available scientific literature suggests that many of the medicinal plants used by the tribals can be validated scientifically in their traditional uses based on reported pharmacological activities present in those plants.

Keywords : Ethnomedicinal investigation , medicinal plants , tribal people of Pedabayalu Mandalam , Visakhapatnam district
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Lesser Known Ethnomedicinal Plants of Hingoli District, Maharashtra, India
Authors : Tukaram Kamble,Milind Sardesai

Present papers provide the information about the ethnomedicinal plants of Hingoli District of Maharashtra state. Total 28 ethnomedicinal plants species belonging to the 22 families which are used for curing the 17 diseases were recorded from the local healer and tribals of the district. Many of the ethnomedicinal value are new to the science. Their updated botanical name, family, local name and uses are provided.

Keywords : Maharashtra , ethnomedicinal plants
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Habitat influences the Seasonal growth, fruiting behaviour in Sargassum polycystum C.Agardh. (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) at Visakhapatnam coast, India.
Authors : S. B. Padal,Danga Appa Rao,Gaddam Subbarangaiah

Sargassum polycystum C. Ag., is an intertidal algal flora of Visakhapatnam coast. Seasonal growth behaviour was observed throughout the year in the four areas studied i.e., Jodugullapalem, Visakhapatnam, Gangavaram and Pudimadaka in the Visakhapatnam coast for two and half years (December 1995 to May 1998). Young and erect fronds are developed from the perennial holdfast in the month of March/April. Rapid increase in the mean length of erect fronds was observed from May onwards and they attain maximum size in November/December and January. Sargassum polycystum analysed from different localities and the mean length of the fronds varied slightly due to variations in the four sites. Plants of sheltered habitat, at Jodugullapalem were taller than those in more exposed habitats at Visakhapatnam and Pudimadaka. The appearance bushiness of these plants also varied in sheltered and exposed habitats. Fruiting plants with receptacles were found seasonally for 3 to 4 months from November to February in Sargassum polycystum. The percentage of fruiting plants varied during the fruiting season and maximum number of fertile plants were found in the month of December/January. Sargassum polycystum analysed from different localities and the Fruiting plants varied slightly due to variations in the four sites.

Keywords : Seasonal growth , Fruiting behaviour varies , different localities , Visakhapatnam coast , Sargassum polycystum
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Study the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn and microbial quality in some kinds of candy
Authors : Amjad Turkey,Ithar Kamil Al-Mayaly

Twenty samples of candy sweet were related to Turkish and china's companies collected from local Iraqi markets to measure the concentrations of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb , Ni and Zn) , also evaluate the microbial quality includes: bacteria and fungi in these tested products. The results revealed that most of studied samples do not exceed the acceptable values were proposed from both WHO and Iraqi standards except the samples N and T. The same results were recorded for Pb concentrations except the J, L and S samples which recorded 0.081,0.071 and 0.092 ppm , respectively. The concentrations of Ni recorded 0.03,0.05,nil,nil,0.06 and 0.01 ppm , respectively in the samples F,I,L,R and 20.The previous values less than the acceptable limits but other exceed thes values, while the samples do not recorded values that exceed the acceptable limits of Zn in WHO or Iraqi standards. Bacterial growth was recognize in the samples A,C,I,J,L,O,P,Q and R with numbers 46,9,31,11,1,11,24,19 and CFU\g , respectively. Also , yeast found in the following studied samples F,G,J,L,M,N and T, respectively. but do not recorded in other samples, while molds were founding with the following numbers 1,34,39,11,17,7,16,17,9,6,25,13,29 and 8 CFU\ g in the samples A,B,C,D,E,G,I,J,K,N,O,P,Q and R, respectively . According to the previous results, it can conclude that the tested samples of candy not suitable for healthy use by children.

Keywords : food contamination , heavy metals , microbial contamination of food
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Title : Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora Linn in alloxan induced diabetic rats
Authors : Pallavi Tiwari,Natarajan Balakrishnan,Mayank Srivastava,Saurav Ghoshal

The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora in alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was confirmed after 5 days of single intraperitoneal injection of ALX (140 mg/kg) in albino Wister rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora (100 and 200 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) orally administered daily for 15 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 1, 10 and 15 days respectively. On the 15th day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for the determination of high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), total glycerides (TG) and total proteins (TP). Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed significant reduction is blood glucose, lipid when compared to diabetic control group. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora was also studied. We concluded that aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Trewia nudiflora possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities.

Keywords : Trewia nudiflora , Antihyperlipidemic , Antidiabetic , Antioxidant
Published in : Journal of Phytomedicine

Title : Role of Commerce Education in Government and Privet Sector
Authors : M. N. Narule,R.R. Karmore

Commerce education is one of the most important faculty in three fundamental academic streams, the other two being humanities and science. Commerce can pursue market, basics of economics, fiscal policies, industrial policies, accountancy, business administration, E-commerce, finance, economics and marketing. Indian economy is one of the fastest growing economies among the third world countries, the need for talented professionals, who can contribute towards the growth of the economy.

Keywords : Commerce education , Indian economy , government sector , privet sector
Published in : Journal of Business & Management Studies

Title : Some Native Medicinal Plants - Around Palakonda Division of Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : S. B. Padal,Danga Appa Rao,Koda Satyavathi

The native medicinal plants study was carried out in adjoining tribal areas of Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh during the month of January, 2014 – June, 2014. The information related to medicinal species which are used to cure common ailments and diseases were collected by the local people of study area. A total of 118 plants belonging to 55 families are listed in this paper.

Keywords : Native Medicinal Plants , Cure Common Ailments , Palakonda Division , Srikakulam District
Published in : Journal of Phytomedicine

Title : An Introduction to the Transdermal Delivery of Antiretrovirals
Authors : Nripendra Singh, Ritu Singh, Vinay Verma

AIDS is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The late stage of the condition leaves individuals prone to opportunistic infections and tumors. Although treatments for AIDS and HIV exist to slow the virus’s progression, there is no known cure. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the blood stream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid and breast milk .Most researchers believe that HIV originated in sub–Saharan Africa during the twentieth century, it is now pandemic, with an estimated 38.6 million people now living with the disease worldwide. As of January 2006, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized on June 5, 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. In 2005 alone, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4–3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000 were children. A third of these deaths are occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, retarding economic growth and destroying human capital. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries. The absorption of drugs through the transdermal route improves bioavailability of drugs that might otherwise be metabolized by first-pass effect (pre- systemic drug elimination) during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract. Drug absorption from the transdermal route is mainly via passive diffusion through the lipoidal membrane. Thus, transdermal route of drug delivery has attracted the attention worldwide for optimizing the drug delivery.

Keywords : AIDS , Transdermal delivery , Enhancers , Patch etc
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Seasonal growth, Reproduction, Spore Germination and Oospore shedding in Sargassum ilicifolium (Turner) C.Ag. of Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : S. B. Padal,Danga Appa Rao,Gaddam Subbarangaiah

Population of Sargassum ilicifolium(Turner) C.Ag. was observed throughout the year in the two areas studied i.e., in and around Visakhapatnam coast. Young and erect fronds are developed from the perennial holdfast in the month of March/April. Rapid increase in the mean length of erect fronds was observed from May onwards and they attain maximum size in November/December and January. Fertile fronds were found for a short duration in a year i.e., from October onwards at Gangavaram and Pudimadaka. The percentage of fruiting plants varied during the fruiting season and maximum number of fertile plants were found in the month of December/January. The liberation of oospores was observed from the first day onwards and increased from day two with peak output on day four and no liberation of oospores was observed after sixteenth day. The maximum shedding of oospores was seen during December/January every year coinciding with the peak growth. The germination rate of oospores was also higher in December/January than in other months of the year.

Keywords : Seasonal growth , Reproduction , Spore Germination , Oospore shedding , Sargassum ilicifolium , Visakhapatnam coast , Andhra Pradesh
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Loading and Release of 6-Mercaptopurine from Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Using Fusion Method
Authors : Saurav Ghoshal,Swatantra Kumar Singh Kushwaha,Pallavi Tiwari,Mayank Srivastava

Most of the existing anticancer drugs are very potent small molecules, their efficacy is constrained by their systemic toxicity, narrow therapeutic window, low drug loading, size control, scale up, cost of formulation but also as a result of drug resistance and limited cellular entry. In the last few years, carbon nanotubes have been projected as a promising carrier for many drugs including anticancer agents because of the high surface area and efficient targeting capabilities. The present work is an attempt to investigate the potentialities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as a carrier for targeting 6 Mercaptopurine to cancer tissues. MWCNTs were carboxy functionalized and then loaded with 6 Mercaptopurine (6MP) using the Fusion method to produce 6MP loaded CNTs. The conjugate was characterized for drug loading efficiency, in vitro drug release and release kinetics. The result indicated that a maximum of about 65% entrapment was achieved. The loaded nanotubes were shown to release the drug for more than 20 hours and thus controlling the release. The release was found to follow the Zero Order and Hixson Crowell release pattern. Our work established a novel, easy to prepare formulation of MWCNTs with better drug loading efficiency and increased dispersibility of CNTs and thus bioavailability at cancer site with reduced systemic toxicity.

Keywords : Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes , 6-Mercaptopurine , Anticancer , Fusion Method
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Predicting Factors of Job Satisfaction among Nurses in Sri Lanka
Authors : H. D. W. T. Damayanthi, O. Wichaikhum,R. Chontawan

Job satisfaction is a multifaceted phenomenon and it affects nurses’ productivity and performance, cost saving, quality of patient care, patient safety, commitment to the organization and the profession. Besides, job dissatisfaction affects to the rate of absenteeism, turnover, intent to leave and migration. No studies have conducted to study the predictability of organizational structure and leadership form of nurse managers on nurses’ job satisfaction in Sri Lanka. The objective of this study was to examine the level of job satisfaction among nurses in a government hospital in the central province, Sri Lanka and to assess the predictability of organizational structure and leadership of nurse managers on job satisfaction among nurses. The sample consisted of 160 registered nurses in government hospital in the central province in Sri Lanka and completed measures on the job satisfaction (McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale), organizational structure (Alexander Structure Instrument) and perceived leadership form of nurse managers (Perceived Leadership Form Questionnaire). The results of the study showed that this sample of nurses was moderately satisfied with their job. Further, transformational leadership form of nurse mangers explained 32.9% of predictability in job satisfaction among nurses. The results suggest that transformational leadership form of nurse mangers as an important predictor of nurses’ job satisfaction. These findings also serve as foundation knowledge for developing strategies to enhance job satisfaction among nurses.

Keywords : nurses , job satisfaction , organizational structure , leadership form
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Phytochemical screening and bioevaluation of medicinal plant Stachytarpheta indica(L.)Vahl.
Authors : Sunita Bhatnagar,Sudeep Ranjan Sahoo,Rashmi Ranjan Dash

Leaf and stem solvent extracts of Stachytarpheta indica were subjected to phytochemical analysis, cytotoxic activity and their antioxidant potential. Both the extracts were rich in phytochemicals like alkaloid, saponins, tannins and phlobotanins. Besides this both the samples were moderate in carbohydrates but rich in protein content. Extracts depicted mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp mortality assay and good antioxidant activity in DPPH assay.

Keywords : Stachytarpheta indica , antioxidant , cytotoxic , alkaloid , saponins , tannins and phlobotanins
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Title : Anthelmintic efficacy of selected ferns in sheeps (Ovis aries.Linn)
Authors : Kalpana Devi Rajesh,Nakulan Valsala Rajesh,Subramani Vasantha,Solomon Jeeva,Durai Rajasekaran

Ethnobotany of Actinopteris radiata (Sw.) Link, Acrostichum aureum (Linn), Dryopteris cochleata (Buch. Ham. ex D. Don), Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith, Hemionitis arifolia (Burm.) Moore and Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link is perhaps the first report on the phytochemical analysis, clinical trials for anthelmintic efficacy of ferns in naturally infected sheeps (Ovis aries) against Haemonchus contortus. Qualitative phytochemical analysis among the three solvents used viz., Aqueous, Ethanolic and Petroleum ether, ethanolic fern extract performed well to express the phytoconstituents. Quantitative phytochemical analysis indicated a higher tannin and phenolic content in Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link and lower content in Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith. In vitro study confirmed lesser time taken for paralysis and death of Haemonchus contortus worm in Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link extract unlike the other ferns studied. In vivo clinical trials using Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test on day 0 (pre-treatment) and on day 5, 7, 9 (post-treatment) with ethanolic fern extracts revealed Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link (91%) had better efficacy than Actinopteris radiata (Sw.) Link (84%), Dryopteris cochleata (Buch. Ham. ex D. Don) (78%), Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Smith (65%), Acrostichum aureum (Linn) (56%) and Hemionitis arifolia (Burm.) Moore (49%).

Keywords : Ethnobotany , Fern , Phytochemical , Anthelmintic , In vitro , In vivo , Sheeps
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Lipid Composition of Afromomum melegueta, Zingiber officinale, Afromomum melegueta & Xylopic aethiopica
Authors : Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye, Adeolu Jonathan Adesina, Emmanuel Dayo Fagbohun

Lipid composition of four different plant products used as spices: Afromomum melegueta (small and big alligator peppers), Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Xylopic aethiopica (Ehiopian pepper) were analyzed for lipid composition. Crude fat levels ranged between 0.42 – 8.92 g/100g. SFA levels ranged from 17.5 – 50.0 % of total fatty acids. The most concentrated SFA in all the samples was C16:0 (12.0 – 26.1 %), with the highest level occurring in Afromomum melegueta. MUFA values were in the range of 17.3 – 33.6 %, highest MUFA was petroselinic fatty acid in big and small alligator peppers (17.2 and 16.5 % respectively). Among the PUFAs, C18:2 cis - 9, 12 (LA) had the highest concentrations in all the samples with a range of 27.5 – 52.7 %. In all the samples, n-6 PUFA constituted the largest group: 27.8 – 56.3 %. Phytosterol levels showed sitosterol as the most concentrated in all the samples (19.3 – 351 mg/100g). Phosphatidylcholine constituted the highest concentrated phospholipid in all the samples with values ranging between 2.60 – 27.4 mg/100g. Chi-square (X2) analysis showed that significant differences occurred at α = 0.05 among the quality parameters from the fatty acids except in MUFA/SFA, EPSI and PUFA/SFA ratios. The plant samples were generally low in total fatty acids, hence their consumption, as food sources may not result in the consumers consuming fats above the recommended healthy guidelines.

Keywords : Afromomum melegueta , Zingiber officinale , Afromomum melegueta , Xylopic aethiopica , Lipid composition
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : A review on phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Prosopis cineraria
Authors : Shivali sachdeva,Vichitra Kaushik,Vipin Saini

In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological studies done on important medicinal plant Prosopis cineraria, (Family Fabaceae). Fatty acids, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides were the major phytochemical compounds studied from this medicinal plant. The plant possesses the major pharmacological activities which includes analgesic, anthyperlipidemic, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity. This review encompasses the potential application of the above plant in the pharmaceutical field due to its wide pharmacological activities.

Keywords : Prosopis cineraria , Phytoconstituents , Pharmacological activities
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Phytoplankton Diversity and Seasonal Variations in the Shivnath River, Durg- Bhilai
Authors : Bhawana Pandey,Pratiksha Pandey

Shivnath River is main river of Durg Bhilai region. Present investigations elucidate the abundance and composition of phytoplankton in the river water at Durg during different seasons. Results are indicative of a wide range of seasonal fluctuations in quality and quantity of phytoplankton. A total of 37 phytoplankton genera were observed with most dominant being Closterium, Diatoma, Synedra, Nitzschia, Phormidium and Nevicula. The order of abundance of various phytoplankton group to be find Chlorophytes > Diatoms> Cyanophytes> Desmids. The occurrence of pollution indicating genera confirms heavy pollution of Shivnath River.

Keywords : Phytoplankton , Seasonal Variations , Shivnath River , Pollution
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Pharmacovigilance and Indian System of Medicine An Overview
Authors : bhuwal ram,sanjeev kumar,k.n dwivedi

Ayurveda- the science of life is oldest repository of medical sciences of ancient India. It has two basic objects i.e. maintenance of health and cure of disorders, for this purpose number of herbal drugs are used. It is a popular perception prevailing throughout the globe that, the traditional systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha, or Unani) do not produce any adverse effect, but today it is not truth. In present scenario, increased globalization of these systems have been raised concerns about safety, efficacy and acceptability of Ayurvedic products. Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. To tackle these concerns, a system like pharmacovigilance is needed to be established considering this, Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi has launched Pharmacovigilance programme for Ayurved, Siddha, and Unani medicines. The present article will provide a brief outlook for standardization and pharmacovigilance concerning Ancient and Modern views.

Keywords : Pharmacovigilance , Standardization , Safety , Efficacy , Indian System of Medicine
Published in : Journal of Complementary & Alternative Medicine

Title : Frequency of ABO Blood Group and Decreased Level of Hemoglobin in Lung Cancer Patients
Authors : Sachin Sharma,B.R Shrivastav,Archana Shrivastav,Vivek Shrivastav

The present study was done in Cancer Hospital and Research Institute Gwalior (MP) to find out the frequency of ABO blood group and hemoglobin levels in lung cancer patients. ABO blood group is one of the main factor in patient’s genetic makeup and found to be associated with many diseases. Lung cancer is one of the major cancer affecting a large population now a day throughout the world. The frequency of B blood group was found to be highest with percentile frequency of 0.38 followed by O i.e. 0.33 in lung cancer patients. The ᵪ2 value found to be 0.954 (p = 0.328<0.05). Low hemoglobin level (Anemia) was also found in cancer patients, Z test value 2.3324 (p= 0.0198<0.05) indicated the hemoglobin level was significantly lower in male patients than female patients. Z test value for the hemoglobin levels of smoker and non smoker lung cancer patients was found to be 3.1226 (p =0.0018<0.001) which showed significant lower level of hemoglobin in lung cancer patients with smoking habits than the non smoker lung cancer patients

Keywords : ABO Blood group , Lung cancer , Population genetics , Frequency allele , Anemia
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Ethno-medicine used against fever among the tribes of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : S. B. Padal,B. Sandhya Sri,J. B. Raju

This paper deals with 32 plant species belonging to 24 families used to treat fever prevalent among different tribal people of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. Plant species enumerated along with scientific name, local name, method of administration and prescribed dose. The present study also documents 2 new plants and 10 new medicinal practices. The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethno medicinal value of the plants and their uses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords : Ethno-medicine , Fever , Tribal communities , Visakhapatnam district
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : New traditional phytotherapy for gynecological disorders among the tribes of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh, India
Authors : S. B Padal,B. Sandhya Sri,B. Rama Krishna

The present study highlights the medicinal plants used for treating gynecological disorders by the tribal communities in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh. This paper enumerates the traditional uses of 38 plant species belonging to 37 genera under 29 families used to cure women problems. Three new medicinal plants and 54 new practices were also reported.

Keywords : Gynecological disorders , Visakhapatnam district , Andhra Pradesh
Published in : Journal of Phytomedicine

Title : Assessment of the Prevalence of Hepatotoxicity among HIV/TB Co-infected Patients in Adama Referral Hospital, Adama, Ethiopia
Authors : Minyahil Alebachew Woldu,Henok Getaneh,Jimma Lenjisa,Gobezie Tegegne ,Gurmu Tesafye,Hunduma Dinsa

Background: Hepatotoxicity is historically the 3rd most common reason for ART toxicity related discontinuation. Liver toxicity generates medical visit, work plan exams, and frequent hospital admissions all of which increases expenses. In addition, hepatotoxicity hampers the maintenance of HIV suppressions over time. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatotoxicity and identify the major predictors that may cause hepatotoxicity in Adama hospital, Adama City, Oromiya, Ethiopia. Methods: A case-control study was conducted by reviewing charts of TB/HIV co- infected patients. All Patients on HAART and TB treatment and in ART follow up clinic of Adama Hospital of the last two years were included in the study. A total of 105 patients’ charts were included in the study considering a 4 to 1 control to case proportion. A systematic random sampling method was used to collect data from patients’ chart. Results: Of the total 105 patients included in the study, 21(20%) were developed hepatotoxicity. Fifty four (51.43%) of the participants were females. The mean CD4 count of the patients was 205.1 + 96.18 cells/µL and ranges from the lowest count of 51 cells/µl to the highest recorded count of 559 cells/ul. The most frequent anti-TB regimen prescribed was 2(INH, RIF, ETM, PZA)/4(INH, RIF). Ninety five (90.5 %) of the participants were on the primarily prophylactic drugs. Of this figure, 49(46.7%) were on cotrimoxazole. Relatively more female patients 12(57.1%) were vulnerable for the development of hepatotoxicity. Most of the patients who had developed hepatotoxicity were on WHO clinical stage 3. Social drug use was significantly associated with development of hepatotoxicity (P=.005) with a 95% CI (0.01-311). Patients on TDF/3TC/EFV (OR= 121.7, P=.010) and D4T/3TC/NVP (OR= 47.4, P=.009) ART regimen were found to be more prone to develop hepatotoxicity compared to patients on D4T/3TC/NVP regimen and similarly patients on 2(ERHZ)/4(RH) anti-TB regimen (OR= 575.96, P=.002) with a 95% CI (0.02-3.8), was found to be more prone to develop hepatotoxicity compared to the other types anti-Tb regimens. Spearman correlation analysis of age, weight and/or CD4 count with of hepatotoxicity showed no statistical association. Conclusions: The prevalence of hepatotoxicity in TB/HIV coinfected patients can be due to a number of factors among which sex, the WHO clinical staging, use of Social drugs, type of ART regimen and type of anti-TB regimen are the major, according to the findings of this study.

Keywords : Prevalence of Hepatotoxicity , HIV/TB Co infection , Adama Referral Hospital
Published in : Advances in Biology & BioMedicine

Title : Identification of Potent Hepatitis C Virus RdRp Inhibitors by Structure Based Drug Designing
Authors : Mohanapriya Arumugam,Sudharsana Sundarrajan,Sweta Kumari,Sajitha Lulu

Hepatitis C, the silent disease caused by Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a chronic health infection globally. HCV causes permanent hepatic cirrhosis and carcinoma in humans. WHO estimated about 3 million incidents of HCV infection around the world. Multiple variant genotypes along with the development of Quasi-species limited the efficacy of drugs used for the treatment of HCV infections. This heterogeneity of the virus hampered the drug development against them. The virus hosts many structural and non-structural (NS) proteins. NS5B is a non-structural protein with a unique structure and function. The protein is a RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) responsible for building the vital genetic component of the virus. Inhibition of NS5B stops viral replication and propagation. The major role played by RdRP makes it a preferential target for anti-HCV drug development. An association of docking and rescoring studies was performed to 24 compounds derived from various plant sources to estimate their activity against HCV NS5B RdRp. Based on the docking characterization and ADMET properties andrographolide, esculetin, columbin and tinosporide were identified as they showed greater potency against HCV NS5B RdRp. However, based on hepato bioactive spectrum and ADMET score, andrographolide from Andrographuis paniculata emerged as a strong contender with lead like characteristics acting as a promising drug candidate.

Keywords : Non-structural protein , RNA dependent RNA polymerase , docking , Andrographolide
Published in : Journal of Bioinformatics & Cheminformatics

Title : Increased anticancer efficacy by the combined administration of quercetin in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells
Authors : Krishnamoorthy Kavithaa,Sundaravadivelu Sumathi,Manickam Paulpandi,Palakkad Ragunathan Padma

Quercetin is one of the bioactive flavonoid isolated from the leaves of Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae). The isolated quercetin was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the combined efficacy of quercetin with standard chemotherapeutic drug tamoxifen also studied. The results showed greater reduction in the cell viability from the QuerTam group (quercetin with tamoxifen) than tamoxifen and quercetin alone group. The IC50 values of test compounds were determined as 2µM, 0.5µM and 1.8µM for quercetin, Quertam and tamoxifen respectively. An elevated induction of apoptosis was found in QuerTam treatment when compared to quercetin and tamoxifen alone. The combined efficacy of QuerTam showed significant inhibition of cell viability by decreasing Bcl-2 protein expression and inducing apoptosis. Flow cytometry revealed a decrease in normal cells and increasing pro and late apoptotic cells indicative of apoptosis induction, while fluorescence microscopy showed evidence of the induction of apoptosis and nuclear fragmentation. To summarize these results showed that quercetin enhances the MCF-7 cell sensitivity to tamoxifen, as demonstrated by the improvement in the anticancer therapy.

Keywords : Quercetin , MCF-7 cells , anti-cancer , Euphorbia hirta , Bcl-2 , Tamoxifen
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Study on Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Selected Medicinal Plants
Authors : Jayachitra A,krithiga N,rajalakshmi A,gopal P

The selected medicinal plants were investigated for the pharmaceutical uses such as to act as antioxidant agents. The Clitoria ternatea, Solanum nigrum and Aloe vera leaves were extracted serially by the solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform ,butanol, ethanol and acetone) were tested for their free radical scavenging activity against DPPH by using the petroleum ether extracts of Clitoria ternatea, Solanum nigrum and Aloe vera leaves were the most effective scavenging of DPPH. These plant extracts were also analyzed for the activities of selected enzymic antioxidants such as peroxidase and reduced glutathione and the non-enzymic antioxidants were total carotenoids, flavanoids ant total chlorophyll . The results showed the leaves of Solanum nigrum possess higher levels of antioxidants. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and acetone extracts of Clitoria ternatea, Solanum nigrum and Aloe vera leave were studied for their antimicrobial activity against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens.

Keywords : Petroleum ether extract , DPPH , Enzymic and Non-enzymic antioxidants , Clitoria ternatea , Solanum nigrum , Aloe vera
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Phytochemical Profiling of Leaves and Stem Bark of Terminalia arjuna and Tecomella undulata
Authors : TAHIRA PARVEEN,Kanika Sharmaa

The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. Phytochemical constituents are responsible for medicinal and antimicrobial activity of plant species. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. Hence the present study involves extraction and phytochemical analysis of leaves and stem bark extract of Terminalia arjuna and Tecomella undulata belonging to the family Combretaceae, and Bignoniaceae respectively. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed to check the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, steroids, volatile oil, fat, tannin, carbohydrate, saponin and flavonoids in the selected plant species. Plant extracts were obtained by successive extraction of leaf and stem bark powder in soxhlet apparatus by using a series from non polar (petroleum ether) to polar (water) solvents. The samples were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening by adopting standard methodology. Observation revealed the presence of several secondary metabolites in various organic solvents of leaves and stem bark extracts. Therefore, leaves and stem bark extracts of the selected plants may serve as a good source of constituents of useful drugs and may also be used for the preparation of herbal biocontrol agents against plant pathogens.

Keywords : Terminalia arjuna , Tecomella undulata , Secondary Metabolites , Phytochemical Analysis
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Toxicity Analysis of different medicinal plant extracts in Swiss Albino Mice
Authors : jayachitra A,gopal P,rajalakshmi A,krithiga N

Plants and their derivatives played a key role in world health and have long been known to possess biological activity. The importance of biological evaluations of plants derived agents used in the treatment of various diseases. The data of the acute toxicity studies (oral) on medicinal plants obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for use in the development of pharmaceuticals. The aim of this work was to study the effects of repeated dosage of two concentration of plant extracts such as 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were administered to Swiss albino mice daily for 15 days (orally) to check the safety profile of plant extracts. Mice were randomly selected and each group contains three animals, and analyse the physical parameters, biochemical parameters and liver toxicity were studied at the end of the experiment and analyse the histopathological studies to done for 400mg/kg of group animals assess any organ specific toxicity. From the study there was no changes were observed in liver section when compared with treated and control groups.

Keywords : Plant Extracts , Toxicity , Swiss Albino Mice , AST , ALT , Histopathology
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Authors : Nivedhitha K P,Karthikeyan M

Papaya (Carica papaya.L) is known for its nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. It acts as a multi faceted plant. FRAP assay proved chloroform and acetone leaf extract have maximum reducing power. Latex has high reducing power than leaf extracts, due to presence of higher content of flavanoids. The studies on Anticancer effect on Breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), for acetone leaf extract 125 μg/ml concentration and for latex extract 62.5 μg/ml concentration is the minimum lethal dose that kills approximately 50% of cells. The morphological observation confirmed the apoptosis nature of papaya extracts on cells as their membrane kept intact and no membrane permeabilization was observed. The extracts of papaya significantly decreased the growth rate and cell survival of breast cancer cell lines. On the whole the results suggest among all four leaf extracts, acetone leaf extract showed better activity on all evaluation studies. But compared to acetone leaf extract, latex extract proved to have maximum activity on all analysis due to the presence of highest content of phytocompounds.

Keywords : Carica papaya , Antioxidant activity , anticancerous activity , MCF-7 cancer cell line
Published in : Advances in Cancer Research & Therapy

Title : Selecting the best ligand for Migraine Protein 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2A (HT2A) from the Compounds of Valeriana wallichii, Asparagus racemosus and Acorus calamus.
Authors : Preenon Bagchi,Somashekhar R,Mahesh M,Ajit Kar

Gene mutation in HT2A is one among the causes for Migraine. The amino acid sequence was retrieved, the 3D structure was determined by homology modelling. The 3D structures of the compounds of Valeriana wallichii, Asparagus racemosus and Acorus calamus were sketched using Chemsketch & converted to 3D. Using the pharmacophore features of the known ligand myristicin, compounds from V. wallichii, A. racemosus and A. calamus are selected and docked with HT2A receptor. Compound having the best docking score is selected as the best ligand.

Keywords : Migraine , sleep disorder , serotonin receptor , G-protein-coupled receptor , myristicin , homology modeling , docking
Published in : Journal of Bioinformatics & Cheminformatics

Title : Determination of LC50 for Profenofos Q (Curacron 500 PRO)with germination parameter of Vigna radiata seeds
Authors : BIjaya Kumar Mohanty,Goutam Sabat,Ipsita Priyadarsini Mishra

Profenophos EC50 (curcuron 500 PRO) was used in the experiment with 20 concentration of pesticide in range of 0.01% to 1% to find out LC50 for the test plant Vigna radiata, L. grown under laboratory conditions. The parameter used to find out LC50 was germination percentage of seeds after 72 hours of pesticide treatment. The LC 50 is calculated where there is 50 % germination of seeds and was found to be 0.45% of profenofos. The LC 100 (Lethal Concentration) where all seeds failed to germinate was found to be 1% of pesticide concentration. The MAC (maximum allowable concentration) was found to be 0.02% Profenophos.

Keywords : Vigna radiate , EC50 , LC50 , germination , Profenophos
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : Gymnema sylvestre – A Key for Diabetes Management – A Review
Authors : Subramaniyan Vijayakumar,Srinivasan Prabhu

Traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60 per cent world population. Diabetes is an important human ailment officiating many from various walk of life in different countries including India. It providing to a major health problem, especially in the urban area: Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is a herb distributed throughout the world. The leaves of the plant are widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as diuretic in India proprietary medicine. G. sylvestre, an Ayurvedic herb, came to be known as “destroyer of sugar” because, in ancient times, Ayurvedia physicians observed that chewing a few leaves of G. sylvestre suppressed the taste of sugar. It is used totally all over India for controlling blood sugar. Several bio-active compounds have been isolated from the herb for diabetes care. It is believed to be used in dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, haemorrhoids, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis and leucoderma. A scrutiny of literature revealed some notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as anti diabetic, antiobesity, hypolipidaemic, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory. The present review is an attempton various ethanobotanical and traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological approaches of G. sylvestre .

Keywords : Gymnema sylvestre , Ethanobotanical uses , phytochemistry , pharmacological activities
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Title : Root-zone technology as energy efficient and cost effective for sewage water treatment
Authors : Binita Desai,Pratibha Desai

The process of design, construction and operation of sewage treatment plant (STP) requires multi disciplinary approach. Numerous conventional methods are available for design of sewage treatment plants. The process involved in these treatments is either aerobic, anaerobic or combination requiring number of mechanical and electrical items thereby requiring substantial energy. The ever growing need of energy makes the design, operation and maintenance of STP a challenging task. The conventional method of sewage treatment can be made efficient by advanced technologies and intelligent supervision. However, root zone technology developed by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute treats the sewage. It is found from the study carried out on nine STPs at various locations, it uses only 20% of the energy as compared to conventional sewage treatment plants

Keywords : sewage treatment plant , root zone technology , energy-efficient and cost-effective
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Qualitative and Quantitative Screening of Grasses for Macro and Micro Nutrients
Authors : R. Hari babu, N. savithramma

The present study is aimed to screen the selected grasses of South India for qualitative and quantitative mineral content. The results revealed that the grass species accumulate the major and minor elements at various concentrations. The concentration of macroelements were found to be 9503, 51360, 4650 and 3473 (ppm) of Ca, K, Mg and P respectively and microelements were 40, 219, 2698, 261, 68 and 108 for B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo and Zn (ppm) respectively. 17% of ash content and 3826 cal/g of calorific value were found as the selected species. The levels of macro and micro elements of the grasses were determined by using ICP –OES. Elemental analysis studies of the grass species revealed that large amounts of major and minor elements were found rich in Fimbristylis cymosa and Scleria lithosperma, which may be suggested for livestock feeding.

Keywords : ICP-OES , Grass , Ash , Calorific value and Elemental analysis
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : In-Vitro Pharmacological Activity of Essential Oil –Linalool from Jasminum Polyantham
Authors : B. Rekha,C. Muthukumar, S.V. Bakiyalakshmi,G. Shakila

An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Linalool-is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowers and spice plants with many commercial applications. In this present study the linalool was isolated from Jasminum polyanthum and its pharmacological activities such as Anti Spasmolytic and Anti inflammatory were analyzed by In vitro method. The Jasminum polyanthum and linolool possesses the anti spasmodic activity. The prevention value of inhibition or stimulation the Jasminum polyanthum and Linolool contains 50% and 65% of Activity. The Jasminum polyanthum shows 47.30% of anti inflammatory activity where as the Linolool shows high activity 70% respectively. From this study the isolated linalool essential oil possess the anti spasmodic activity which can be applied in pharmacy for the treatment of muscle problems and other related problems.

Keywords : Essential oil , Linalool , Jasminum polyanthum , Anti Spasmolytic and Anti inflammatory
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Title : Ayurinformatics Selecting the best ligand for Schizophrenic Protein D(3) Dopamine Receptor (DRD3) from the Compounds of Valeriana wallichii, Asparagus racemosus and Acorus calamus
Authors : Preenon Bagchi

Gene mutation in DRD3 is one of the causes for Schizophrenia. The amino acid sequences are retrieved, their 3D structures were determined by homology modelling. The 3D structures of the compounds of Valeriana wallichii and Acorus calamus were sketched using Chemsketch & converted to 3D. Using Glide →Ligand Docking module of Maestro the best interacting compound (from Valeriana wallichii, Asparagus racemosus and Acorus calamus) with DRD3 protein is selected as the potential ligand.

Keywords : Neurotransmitter , Dopamine , G-protein , Schizophrenia , Homology Modelling , Docking , Interaction
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Fast dissolving drug delivery system A novel approach
Authors : Sayani Konar,Avisek Mukhopadhyay

Recently Fast dissolving oral drug delivery systems are the most advanced form of oral solid dosage form due to more flexibility and comfort. It improve the efficacy of active pharmaceutical ingredients by dissolving within minute in oral cavity after the contact with less saliva as compared to fast dissolving tablets, without chewing and no need of water for administration. Traditional tablets and capsules administered with an 8-oz. glass of water may be inconvenient or impractical for some patients. For example, a very elderly patient may not be able to swallow a daily dose of antidepressant. An eight year- old with allergies could use a more convenient dosage form than antihistaminic syrup. A schizophrenic patient in the institutional setting can hide a conventional tablet under his or her tongue to avoid their daily dose of an atypical antipsychotic. For these complications the new approach may be convenient for patients.

Keywords : Fast dissolving tablets (FDT) , Formulation , Excipient
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Potential anti-diabetic plants of eastern India- A review article
Authors : Soumya Mitra,Anima Pandey

Diabetes mellitus is one the most common diseases in the world. It is assumed that in near future the number of people affected by this disease will reach over 1 billion. There is no permanent treatment to this disease apart from Diabetes mellitus, Management, Endogenous plants some dietary controlling, exercising and few oral hypoglycemic agents. Use of various plants helps in preventing the increase of blood-glucose level. This review article aims to cover few very important plants which help in reducing the glucose levels in blood from the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa. The plants reviewed here are very common to the region and poses no threat to the human body.

Keywords : Diabetes mellitus , Management , Endogenous plants
Published in : Journal of Phytomedicine

Title : The foray of Pharmacogenomics-An India perspective
Authors : Pavithra Krishnan,Suma Jayaram

Pharmacogenomics is the study of genetic differences responsible for the variability in response to drugs & metabolism among individual patients. The main interest or application of Pharmacogenomics is to permit the drugs to be tailor-made for every individual and adapted to each person’s own genetic makeup, so that making a way for creating personalized drugs with greater efficacy and safety.This review aims to provide an overview of the value and scope of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine in a developing country with severe health resource crunch and offers insights for the potential impact of this field on the safe and effective use of medications with its future prospects and challenges in a health set-up like India.

Keywords : Pharmacogenomics , India , Personalized medicine , human genome , clinical trials
Published in : International Journal of Pharmacy & Bio-Sciences

Title : Oxytocin A potential novel therapeutic agent in treatment of autism
Authors : Tarek Abdelaal,Mohamed Abbas

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by varying deficits in social interactions, communication, and learning, as well as stereotypic behaviors. Despite the significant increasing rates of ASD during the last two decades, there are few clues for its exact pathogenesis, delaying early detection and effective intervention. Thus, identifying causes and treatments is imperative. So far, there are no known efficacious treatments for the core social symptoms, although effects on repetitive behaviors are indicated with some data. During the past decade oxytocin (OT) research has shown a major upsurge. The beneficial roles of OT on social functioning raise the question regarding its potential usefulness in ASD management. If clinical application of OT in the treatment of ASD proves successful then it may introduce a new hope for afflicted individuals and their families. Fortunately pioneering clinical studies support this notion, however, more research should go on to resolve issues concerning clear mechanisms by which OT modulates social behavior before its real introduction for clinical application. Also probable adverse affects must be thoroughly investigated to ensure safe treatment outcomes.

Keywords : Autism , oxytocin , social behavior , mind reading , eye contact
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Title : Nano-Synthesis and Microstructural Features of Y+++-Doped -2212-BPSCCO-Superconductor
Authors : Khaled M. Elsabawy

The present investigations concerned by synthesis of pure BPSCCO (Bi0.5Pb0.5)2 Sr2Ca1Cu2O8 and its variant yttrium containing composites with general formula Bi1-xYxPbSr2Ca1Cu2Oz and, where x = 0.1 ,0.2 and 0.3 mole % respectively .The samples were prepared via soultion route (Freeze Drying Technique ) to obtain nano-product . Yttrium has a moderate effects on the main crystalline superconductive 2212-phase as x amount of dopant increase as indicated in XRD measurements .AFM-and SE-microscopy accompanied with EDX proved that, solution route was the best homogeneous matrix and has exact molar ratios . Yttrium-dopant ions exhibit strong interactions on Raman spectral modes of 2212-phase ,while Y+++ ions have a slight effect on Tc’s even with maximum addition x = 0.3 mole.

Keywords : Nano-Doping ,Superconductors ,SEM ,AFM ,XRD , Raman Spectra , Y2O3
Published in : Advances in Engineering & Scientific Research

Title : Extensively Drug Resistance Tuberculosis & Molecular Tools
Authors : Narotam Sharma,Nazia Parveen,Mohammad Shahrukh,Jyoti Sharma,Farha Usmani,Prashansa Raghuvanshi,Smriti Yadav,Navodita Bhatt

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is caused by bacteria that are resistant to some of the most effective anti-TB drugs. XDR-TB strains have arisen after the mismanagement of individuals with multidrug-resistant TB. Review article discuss about the Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis w.r.t Indian Scenario.

Keywords : Non- tuberculosis mycobacterium , Multiple Drug Resistance , Extensively Drug Resistance , High-Resolution Melting
Published in : Advances in Cellular & Molecular Biology

Title : A Critical study on the nutrient level status of the Children attending ICDS Center in Kerala State (India)
Authors : Jemy Elizabeth Joseph

The research study is to assess the nutritional supplementation in term of nutritional grading and nutritional deficiency diseases among Preschoolers in Kerala state. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in among children of age group of 3-6 years in 4 districts of Kerala State was selected randomly for the present study, rural population of child beneficiaries of ICDS scheme which comprises of children upto six years of age, who were registered at AWC as Beneficiaries and served by Anganwadi centre for more than one year and corresponding those who were not registered took as Non-beneficiaries. Results: Malnutrition in ICDS group was found to be 50 %in male 58.0% in female, 16.3 % in males and 20.5 % in female and 44.9 % in male and 44.0% in female respectively while in Non- ICDS Utilizers stunting is 75 % in male and 69 %in female, wasting 27.0% in males and 28.0 % in females and underweight is 60.9% in males and 60.1% in female respectively, The Mean Weight of ICDS beneficiaries in general was more than that of non ICDS utilizers.

Keywords : Anganwadi centre , Nutritional Status , Dietary recall method , Malnutrition
Published in : Frontiers in Food & Nutrition Research

Title : Toxicity assessment of Aluminium on vermicomposting ability of Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) on leaf litter
Authors : Annapoorani C.A

Vermicomposting technology is one of the best options available for the treatment of organics-rich solid wastes. In which earth worm converts biodegradable garbage into high quality manure and plays a key role in soil biology and they serve as versatile natural bioreactors to harness energy and destroy soil pathogens. The worms feed voraciously on all biodegradable wastes. There is an instance of chemical toxicity among non target organisms like earthworms etc, in agricultural lands due to pollution of chemical companies and factories. In the present investigation vermicomposting ability of earthworms Eudrilus eugeniae were measured experimentally by exposing in moist leaf litter with Aluminium. The morphological changes observed during the exposure of animals were observed in laboratory conditions and appears to impair the different stages of reproductive cycle of the worms thereby resulting in the onset of reduced vermicomposting ability of the earthworm.

Keywords : Eudrilus eugeniae , vermicomposting , toxicity , aluminium , exposure
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Title : A Study of Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among High School Students in a Private School in Gulbarga
Authors : Sharanagouda Patil,Shivanand Bhimalli,Kavitha M ,Shrikanth S W ,Arundathi Patil,Venkatesh Patil

Over the last decades pediatric obesity has become global epidemic with an estimate of 45 million children and adolescent being affected and this is exponentially increasing. Obesity is leading to a significant mortality and morbidity. Aims and Objective: 1 .To determines the prevalence of overweight and obesity among high school students. 2. .To assesses the risk factors associated with Overweight and Obesity in them. 3. To suggest interventional strategies for prevention and control of overweight and obesity. Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among 13- 15years high school students. Parameters of height, weight were measured and recorded following the completion of a questionnaire and the results were compared against the body mass index for age percentiles of both sexes. Result: Prevalence of overweight and obesity were high among the school children and need to be addressed by primary and secondary methods of prevention.

Keywords : Childhood obesity , obesity
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

Title : A Sweet Medicinal Herb Stevia rebaudiana Perspectives in Therapeutics
Authors : Madhumita Kumari,Sheela Chandra

Throughout the ages, humans have relied on nature for their needs. From thousands of years plants are the basis of traditional medicine systems and will continuously supply new remedies. Stevia rebaudiana is a natural sweetener plant and known as “Sweet Weed”, “Sweet Leaf”, “Sweet Herbs” and “Honey Leaf”, which is estimated to be 300 times sweeter than cane sugar and popular worldwide due to its sweetness. Besides sweetness it has broad spectrum of therapeutic potential which are little known. India has suitable climate for Stevia cultivation. In spite of this, Stevia cultivation has not been taken up on a large scale. Aim of this review is to explore the therapeutic benefits of Stevia rebaudiana and techniques for its conservation.

Keywords : Stevia rebaudiana , diabetes , conservation
Published in : Journal of Phytomedicine

Title : Computational Analysis of Oral Disease (Periodontitis) for Drug Targets
Authors : V. Madhumathi ,S. Vijaya kumar

The oral cavity contains some of the most varied and vast flora in the entire human body and is the main entrance for 2 systems vital to human function and physiology, the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Several diseases involve these 2 systems and manifest in the oral cavity. In addition, a specific pathologic condition, such as periodontitis the human oral cavity is a complex biological system in which members of a microbial community interact with themselves as well as with different host structures and components Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans and Treponema denticola cause periodontitis. The pathogenisis of this dental infection is a multi factorial process that results in a serious degenerative disease of the periodontium. Researchers have resulted in the identification of important virulence factors. These researches have provided a narrow picture of the steps of this complex process. In the present study Ferric binding protein is taken as a case study molecule to understand high reactive responses of various drugs administered for the oral periodontitis. The drugs are being compared with the Fbp. The Fbp interacted with doxycycline, flurbiprofen and chlorhexidine using docking methods.

Keywords : Porphyromonas gingivalis , Streptococcus mutans and Treponema denticola Fbp , periodontitis , Doxycycline , Chlorhexidine , flurbiprofen , Docking
Published in : Journal of Bioinformatics & Cheminformatics

Title : Efficient in vitro regeneration of biodiesel plant Jatropha curcas .L
Authors : G. Renuga, C. Rajamanickam

In the present investigation, in vitro propagation of Jatropha curcas L. was achieved employing nodal explants. Axillary shoot bud proliferation was best initiated on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 20 μM N6-benzyl- adenine (BA) and 50 μ M adenine sulphate, in which cultures produced 8.2 ± 0.56 shoots per nodal explant with 3.0 cm length after 3-5 weeks. The rate of shoot multiplication was significantly enhanced after transfer to MS medium supplemented with 2.5 μ M 6-furfuryl amino purine (Kn), 0.5 μ M indole- 3-butyric acid (IBA) and 25 μ M adenine sulphate for 4 weeks. Internode explant segments of Jatropha curcas plants responded in vitro and formed callus tissue when cultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) full strength nutrient medium supplemented with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D - 4 mg/L) and N6-Benzyl adenine (BA- 4 mg/L). The internode-derived callus tissues were found non-embryogenic and hence did not regenerate into shoot and root, respectively. The internode segments when cultured on MS (full strength) media supplemented with BA - 5 mg/L) were found to grow forming two to three buds. However, these shooting explants did not form roots upon hormonal regulation. On the contrary, endosperm tissue cultured on full strength MS media supplemented with 3 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) along with activated charcoal (100 mg/L) and ascorbic acid (50 mg/L) yielded simultaneous shooting and rooting response after four weeks of incubation.

Keywords : Callus , internode explant , Jatropha curcas L , Murashige-Skoog medium
Published in : Journal of Plant & Agriculture Research

Title : Ethnomedicinal Plants of Jaisalmer District of Rajasthan Used in Herbal and Folk Remedies
Authors : B.B.S. Kapoor,Versha Arora

The Jaisalmer district a part of Thar Desert is very rich in medicinal plant wealth. These medicinal plants have been used by local people and tribal communities since long time in herbal and folk remedies. Kalbelia, Nats, Bhils, Raika, Bhopas, Banjara, Gadolia-Lohar, Garasia and Saharia tribal communities of this district have a rich knowledge of plants based traditional medicines. Fifteen ethnomedicinal plants like Abrus precatorius Linn., Aerva persica Burm.f., Argemone mexicana Linn., Calligonum polygonoides Linn., Chenopodium album Linn. Cleome viscosa Linn., Commiphora wightii Arnott., Corchorus depressus Linn., Cucumis melo Linn., Euphorbia hirta Linn., Fagonia indica Burm., Grewia tenax Forsk., Salvadora oleoides Decne., Solanum nigrum Linn. and Ziziphus nummularia Burm. have been selected for this research work. The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethnomedicinal value of the plants and their uses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords : Ethnomedicinal plants , Jaisalmer district , Herbal , Folk Remedies
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Ascorbic Acid Contents from Some Medicinal Tree Species of the Sikar District of Rajasthan
Authors : B.B.S. Kapoor,Rajuram Prajapat ,Raksha Mishra

Evaluation of Ascorbic acid contents of stems, leaves and fruits from three selected medicinal trees growing in Sikar district of Rajasthan was carried out. Tree species like Ailanthus excelsa, Pongamia pinnata and Salvadora oleoides were collected from three different sites of study area for analysis. Among all the three tree species the maximum (86.28 mg/100 g.d.w.) amount of ascorbic acid was found in fruits of Salvadora oleoides collected from Danta Ramgarh area, while the stems of Ailanthus excelsa had minimum concentration (52.02 mg/100 g.d.w.) collected from Neem Ka Thana area.

Keywords : Ascorbic acid contents , Medicinal tree species , Sikar district , Rajasthan
Published in : Journal of Phytomedicine

Title : Protective mechanisms of rats heart in the acute phase of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in functional remodeling
Authors : G. Renuga,Sri Kennath J Arul

Streptozotocin-induced diabetes was manifested by compromised ventricular contraction and prolonged relaxation attributable to multiple causative factors including oxidative stress and to elucidate the role of these changes in adaptation of the heart to acute streptozotocin induced diabetescardiomyopathy contributes to high morbidity and mortality in diabetic populations. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac expression after injection of the protein purified from Eugenia jambolana on cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ cycling proteins and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isozyme in diabetes. Diabetes depressed the level of SERCA2a, Na+-Ca2+ exchanger and triggered a β MHC isozyme switch. All of these STZ-induced alterations with the exception of depressed SERCA2a and enhanced (MHC) isozyme data suggest a beneficial effect of Eugenia jambolana extract in the therapeutics of diabetic cardiomyopathy, possibly through a mechanism related to SERCA2a and MHC isozyme switch appear as the manifestation of endogenous protective mechanisms participating in the functional remodeling which contributes to adaptation of the heart to diabetes.

Keywords : Cardiomyopathy , Eugeniajambolana , Gene expression , MHC isozyme
Published in : Advances in Cellular & Molecular Biology

Title : Evaluation of Garhwal Himalaya Medicinal Plant Rubus laciocarpus Fruit
Authors : Subhash Chandra,Sarla Saklani

The present study aimed at evaluating the nutritional profile, antinutritional value, mineral value and phytochemical screening of wild edible fruit of Rubus laciocarpus were investigated by standard method. The fruits have been found to rich in nutrients and minerals such as crude protein, carbohydrates, crude fiber, ash content (3.87%, 31.28%, 3.25% and 1.80%) and minerals as calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus (1.30%, 6.13%, 2.10% and 0.60%) respectively and phytochemical screening of plant for the presence of glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, resin and tannins. However, alkaloids were absent. This analysis revealed that, the fruits contained higher value of fat, protein, fiber and minerals as compared to the cultivated fruits with Grapes and 500gm fruits contain sufficient amount of nutrients required per day by a person.

Keywords : Nutritional value , Mineral value , Phytochemical Screening
Published in : International Journal of Ethnobiology & Ethnomedicine

Title : Evaluating the Antibacterial Potential of Vitis vinifera and Punica granatum fruit peels
Authors : R Jasmine,K Manikandan

From time immemorial, people valued fruits as a good source of nutrition, but only the edible portions were used and the outer peels were discarded as wastes. Many of the fruits and vegetables skins are still thrown in the garbage or fed to livestock. The peels of fruits and vegetables and their by-products are formed in great amounts during industrial processing, and cause serious concern, since they accumulate as wastes and pollute the environment. Hence, such wastes need to be managed and/or utilized. On the other hand, they are very rich in bioactive components, which are considered to have a therapeutic value. Hence, efforts have been made to find ways to reuse fruits and vegetables wastes. Using this agro waste therapeutically is a new idea which is slowly gaining popularity. They are high value products and their recovery will be economically attractive. These are novel, natural, eco friendly and economic sources of antimicrobials, which can be used in the prevention of diseases caused by pathogenic microbes and also reduce pollution. Hence this pilot study was undertaken to screen the peels of five commonly used fruits for antibacterial activity against a few clinical strains. The results indicate that the peels can be used and further investigated as sources of antimicrobials.

Keywords : Antibacterial , peels , antioxidant
Published in : Journal of Complementary & Alternative Medicine

Title : In vitro efficacy of bioactive extracts and fractions of two medicinal plants against drug-resistant uropathogens
Authors : R Jasmine, K Manikandan,Karthi keyan

The rise in infectious diseases pose a great problem to society and microbial resistance is growing and the outlook for the use of antimicrobial drugs in the future is still uncertain. Therefore, actions must be taken to reduce this problem, for example, to control the use of antibiotic, develop research to better understand the genetic mechanisms of resistance, and to continue studies to develop new drugs, either synthetic or natural. Literally thousands of plant species have been tested against hundreds of bacterial strains in vitro and many medicinal plants are active against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. However a very few of these medicinal plant extracts have been tested against specific disease causing resistant bacteria. In this study, we have evaluated two same extracts of Ficus carica and Vitis vinifera against drug resistant uropathogens. The ethanol extract fractions obtained were analysed for antibacterial activity by disc diffusion assay and MIC values of the fractions were appreciable. Hence it can be suggested that Ficus carica fruits and Vitis vinifera peels can be a potential source of therapeutic drugs for urinary tract infection. Further investigations to discover the active compound that may serve as lead compounds for drug development are under progress.

Keywords : Ficus carica , Vitis vinifera , Uropathogens , Drug-resistant
Published in : Journal of Phytomedicine

Title : Effects of Aluminium Chloride on the Histology of Cerebellum of Wistar Rats
Authors : A.A. Buraimoh, S.A. Ojo, I. Tayo

Aluminium compounds are used in pharmaceuticals and in water treatment processes. Exposure to aluminum is inevitable in this modern life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects that aluminium chloride could have on the histology of the cerebellum of Wistar rats. Ten Wistar rats were used for this study and they were divided into two groups. Group I was the control that received distilled water only while group II received 40mg/kg of aluminium chloride for duration of four weeks. After four weeks of administration of aluminium chloride except for the group I that received distilled water only, the Wistar rats were humanly sacrificed and brain tissues removed, fixed in Bouin’s fluid, processed and stain in Haematoxylin and Eosin. The slides were viewed under the light microscope fitted to a digital camera and Laptop. Our observations showed Purkinje cell loss in the aluminium treated group when compared with the control. We therefore conclude that aluminium chloride had neuro-degenerating effects on the cerebellum of Wistar rats as eminent in the Purkinje cell loss.

Keywords : Cerebellum , histology , neuro-degenerating , Aluminium Chloride , Wistar rats , Purkinje cell loss
Published in : Pharmacology & Toxicology Research

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